Timeline | Before 1800 to After 1930 | POLITICAL CONTEXT


Country | Theme | Description


United Arab Emirates (Sharjah)  | Political Context

In the early 1700s, the (Al-Qasimi) Qawasim confederation migrates to the coast of the Arab Gulf from the Persian littoral. Here, they establish their main base in Julfar (later Ras al-Khaimah), soon extending their sway all along the lower Gulf, across areas of the east coast and towns on the Persian littoral.

1765 - 1800

Saudi Arabia | Political Context

In 1765 Imam Muhammad bin Saud establishes the First Saudi State in Arabia, starting with the Najd region, and making its capital the city of Dir‘iyya.

1782 - 1813

Portrait of Hammouda Pacha Bey  
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Tunisia | Political Context

During the reign of Hammuda Pasha Bey, known as the “Founder” of modern Tunisia, the Regency of Tunis enjoys a thriving economy and an overall sense of security.

1790 - 1800

United Arab Emirates (Sharjah)  | Political Context

Between around 1790 and the early 1800s, threatened by increasing British inroads into traditional Gulf economies and politics, and supported by the Persians and Omanis, the Qawasim attack British vessels to defend their economic empire in the Lower Gulf.


Peace Treaty of Campo Formio, 17 October 1797, between the French Republic and the Austrian Empire 
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Austria | Political Context

Austria and France conclude the Treaty of Campo Formio on 17 October. Austria then cedes to Belgium and Lombardy. To compensate, it gains the eastern part of the Venetian Republic up to the Adige, including Venice, Istria and Dalmatia.


United Kingdom | Political Context

The Kingdom of Great Britain comes into being under the Treaty of Union of the kingdoms of England (which then included Wales) and Scotland on 1 May 1707. It lasts, controlled under a single parliament and government based at Westminster, up until 31 December 1800.

1800 - 1803

Saudi Arabia | Political Context

Most parts of Arabia become part of the new Saudi State. In 1803, The two holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah), along with the rest of the Hijaz region, join the Saudi State.


United Kingdom | Political Context

The Irish Rebellion of 1798, which was intended to put an end to what Irish nationalists perceived as the subordination and dependency of Ireland on the British crown, instead contributes to the Irish parliament’s vote to join the union between the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. On 1 January 1801, Britain, Scotland and Ireland sign the Act of Union and merge, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1803 - 1818

Saudi Arabia | Political Context

The third Imam, Saud ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, faces a hostile reaction from the Ottoman Empire through its powerful viceroy in Egypt Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha. After ‘Abd al-‘Aziz’s death in 1814, his son, Abdallah, battles with the Egyptian army in many regions of the state. Finally Dir‘iyya is surrendered, and Imam Abdallah is then taken to Turkey, where he is executed.

1803 - 1866

United Arab Emirates (Sharjah)  | Political Context

Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr succeeds his father as leader of the Qawasim. He expands the Qawasim Empire to the east to encompass the areas now known as Khor Fakkan and Kalba. He delegates the administration of key strongholds to his brothers and later to his sons. His half-brother Salih bin Saqr rules Sharjah from 1803 to 1838, followed by his son Saqr bin Sultan (until 1846), and then his son Abdallah bin Sultan (until 1855).
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