TIMELINE / Before 1800 to After 1930 / POLITICAL CONTEXT
Date Country Theme
1700 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
In the early 1700s, the (Al-Qasimi) Qawasim confederation migrates to the coast of the Arab Gulf from the Persian littoral. Here, they establish their main base in Julfar (later Ras al-Khaimah), soon extending their sway all along the lower Gulf, across areas of the east coast and towns on the Persian littoral.
1765 - 1800 Saudi Arabia Political Context
In 1765 Imam Muhammad bin Saud establishes the First Saudi State in Arabia, starting with the Najd region, and making its capital the city of Dir‘iyya.
1782 - 1813 Tunisia Political Context
During the reign of Hammuda Pasha Bey, known as the “Founder” of modern Tunisia, the Regency of Tunis enjoys a thriving economy and an overall sense of security.
1790 - 1800 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
Between around 1790 and the early 1800s, threatened by increasing British inroads into traditional Gulf economies and politics, and supported by the Persians and Omanis, the Qawasim attack British vessels to defend their economic empire in the Lower Gulf.
1797 Austria Political Context
Austria and France conclude the Treaty of Campo Formio on 17 October. Austria then cedes to Belgium and Lombardy. To compensate, it gains the eastern part of the Venetian Republic up to the Adige, including Venice, Istria and Dalmatia.
1800 United Kingdom Political Context
The Kingdom of Great Britain comes into being under the Treaty of Union of the kingdoms of England (which then included Wales) and Scotland on 1 May 1707. It lasts, controlled under a single parliament and government based at Westminster, up until 31 December 1800.
1800 - 1803 Saudi Arabia Political Context
Most parts of Arabia become part of the new Saudi State. In 1803, The two holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah), along with the rest of the Hijaz region, join the Saudi State.
1801 United Kingdom Political Context
The Irish Rebellion of 1798, which was intended to put an end to what Irish nationalists perceived as the subordination and dependency of Ireland on the British crown, instead contributes to the Irish parliament’s vote to join the union between the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. On 1 January 1801, Britain, Scotland and Ireland sign the Act of Union and merge, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1803 - 1818 Saudi Arabia Political Context
The third Imam, Saud ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, faces a hostile reaction from the Ottoman Empire through its powerful viceroy in Egypt Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha. After ‘Abd al-‘Aziz’s death in 1814, his son, Abdallah, battles with the Egyptian army in many regions of the state. Finally Dir‘iyya is surrendered, and Imam Abdallah is then taken to Turkey, where he is executed.
1803 - 1866 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr succeeds his father as leader of the Qawasim. He expands the Qawasim Empire to the east to encompass the areas now known as Khor Fakkan and Kalba. He delegates the administration of key strongholds to his brothers and later to his sons. His half-brother Salih bin Saqr rules Sharjah from 1803 to 1838, followed by his son Saqr bin Sultan (until 1846), and then his son Abdallah bin Sultan (until 1855).
1804 Serbia Political Context
The First Serbian Uprising culminates in the first Serbian Vožd (Grand Leader), a progenitor of the Karađorđević Dynasty, Đorđe Petrović. He is elected, at a gathering of the Serbs at Orašac on the Feast of the Presentation, having won many famous victories against stronger and better-armed Turkish armies at Ivankovac, Mišar and Varvarin. Following the Treaty of Bucharest and the failure of the Uprising, Petrović flees to Austria in 1813, but soon after, eager to continue his efforts at expelling the Turks, he joins the Greek liberation movement. He secretly returns to Serbia in 1817 to discuss a joint plan of action with the Prince of Serbia Miloš Obrenović, but Miloš has him assassinated.
1805 - 1867 Egypt Political Context
During this time Egypt is a legally nominal Ottoman province governed by a wali on behalf of the Ottoman Sultan, although de facto it is virtually independent, with its walis styling themselves as Khedives. Despite their legally subservient status, Egypt’s walis enjoy far more political power than their descendants, who, decades later, rule the country as nominally independent sultans and kings.
1806 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
A temporary Peace Accord is achieved between the British East India Company, represented by Captain David Seton the Resident at Muscat, and Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr. This comes following several incidents labelled by the British as “piracy”, which the Qawasim argue is crucial defence of their existentially important economic interests in the Gulf region.
1806 Germany Political Context
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt are fought – in the midst of the collapse of the Prussian State and abolition of the Holy Roman Empire by Kaiser Franz II – under pressure from Napoleon Bonaparte.
1807 - 1816 Portugal Political Context
First Napoleonic invasion. Prince Regent João (1767–1826, crowned in 1816) transfers the court and the seat of political power to Brazil, avoiding being deposed and replaced by a Napoleonic nominee as in other European kingdoms. In Portugal, Beresford, the British governor, intervenes in Portuguese general politics disregarding national needs.
1808 - 1813 Spain Political Context
Guerra de la Independencia (Peninsular War) during the French occupation of the Iberian Peninsula and the rule of King Joseph-Napoleon Bonaparte.
1809 - 1899 Spain Political Context
The beginning of the independence process in the Spanish territories in South America and Mexico, influenced by the American and French revolutions. The first Declaration of Independence is in Ecuador in 1809 and the American process ends in 1898 with Cuba, followed by the independence of the Philippines and the selling of the Carolinas and the Mariana islands to Germany in 1899.
1809 - 1810 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
Repeated skirmishes between British and Qawasim vessels are labelled “piracy” by the former and taken as justification to plot the final destruction of the Qawasim by the latter. The British launch naval attacks against the Qawasim strongholds at Ras al-Khaimah along the Gulf and on the Persian littoral. However, the Qawasim succeed in rebuilding their fleet and positions to resume their defensive trade-war against the British and their Omani allies.
1810 - 1822 Morocco Political Context
In relation to trade policy, Mulay Sulayman opposes the liberalism of his father Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd Allah by passing an edict in 1814 imposing a 50 per cent duty on imports, and takes restrictive measures by banning the export of most Moroccan commodities to Europe, including grain, oil, wool, animal hides and livestock. The years of drought and swarms of locusts that devastated all crops between 1810 and 1816 caused a shortage of basic commodities, price increases and famine, on top of the plague epidemics that swept the country. All of these factors necessarily weakened the country financially and demographically. This could help to explain the inward-looking policies adopted by the sovereign Mulay Sulayman, who—according to some historical sources—claimed that he did not need Europe and hoped that Europe did not need him. A desperate and exhausted Mulay Sulayman resigned and chose his nephew Mulay ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Hisham as his successor.
1811 Egypt Political Context
On 1 March, Muhammad ‘Ali invites some 470 Mamluk beys to the Citadel for a feast to celebrate his son’s imminent departure for Mecca. When the feasting is over the Mamluks mount their lavishly decorated horses and are led in procession down the narrow, high-sided defile, below what is now the Police Museum. As they approach Bab al-Azab, the great gates swing closed and gunfire rains down on them from above. After the fusillades, Muhammad ‘Ali’s soldiers wade in with swords and axes to finish the job. Legend relates that only one Mamluk escaped alive, leaping over the wall on his horse.
1812 Romania Political Context
After the Russian–Ottoman war of 1806–12 Russia annexes the eastern part of Moldavia (Bessarabia).
1812 Spain Political Context
Spain's first Constitution of 1812, influenced by the French Revolution, is revolutionary because it declares the Spanish American colonies to be provinces and all their inhabitants citizens. The constitution reduces some of the powers and privileges of the monarchy, aristocracy and church and will influence future post-independence South American constitutions. Up to 1876 Spain will change its constitution four times (1837, 1845, 1869, 1876).
1813 Spain Political Context
The Valençay Treaty ends the war between Spain and France. Return of King Fernando VII and absolutist restoration.
1813 - 1815 Germany Political Context
The Liberation Wars (and the decisive Battle of Leipzig in 1913) were between Napoleon Bonaparte’s French troops and Central Europe; Napoleon is overthrown.
1814 - 1815 Germany Political Context
The Wiener Kongress (Congress of Vienna) saw the restoration of the political state (the 1792 Ancien Régime), realignment of the borders, and creation of a loosely arranged German Bund (Federation).
1814 - 1815 France Political Context
First Restoration: the return of the monarchy, referred to as the Bourbon Restoration. Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) facilitated this by accepting a return to the monarchy by means of the Charter of 1814. This Charter combined the more moderate ideas of the Revolution with certain monarchist traditions.
1814 Greece Political Context
Foundation of the secret organisation Filiki Etaireia (Friendly Society) prepares the ground for the Greek Revolution.
1814 France Political Context
Abdication of Napoleon I on 6 April sees the end of the First French Empire (1804–14).
1814 - 1815 Austria Political Context
The Great Peace Congress is held in Vienna from 18 September 1814 to 9 June 1815. Clemens Wenzel Duke of Metternich organises the Austrian predominance in Italy. Austria exchanges the Austrian Netherlands for the territory of the Venetian Republic and creates the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.
1815 Serbia Political Context
The Second Serbian Uprising – the Takovo Uprising – represents the second stage of the Serbian revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which breaks out soon after. The revolt leads to recognition of Serbian autonomy within the Ottoman Empire and establishment of the Kneževina (Principality) of Serbia, which obtained its own Assembly, Constitution and ruling dynasty.
1815 Italy Political Context
The Congress of Vienna decides the restoration of pre-Napoleonic monarchies: Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont, Genoa, Sardinia); Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Southern Italy and Sicily), the Papal States (part of Central Italy), Grand Duchy of Tuscany and other smaller states. Much of northern Italy (Milan, Venice, Trieste etc.) is under the Austrian empire.
1815 - 1866 Germany Political Context
German Confederation.
1815 - 1816 Tunisia Political Context
The English Admiral Edward Pellow, 1st Viscount Exmouth imposes on the regencies of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli new recommendations to slow the race at sea. He inaugurates the so-called Gunboat diplomacy, which involves the threat of military force.
1815 - 1860 Italy Political Context
Italian “Risorgimento” (movement for national unification).
1815 France Political Context
March–July, the Cent Jours (Hundred Days) between which Napoleon I returns to power and then finally abdicates after defeat at Waterloo.
1815 - 1830 France Political Context
Second Restoration: the reign of Louis XVIII and his brother Charles X. France experiences an economic boom (i.e. the development of the railways), but discontent grows over the king’s authoritarian policies.
1815 - 1920 Jordan Political Context
Jordan is a part of Ottoman Syria. Its importance lies in being a land bridge connecting Anatolia and Syria with north Arabia, Egypt and North Africa and hence the necessity of establishing Ottoman fortresses to guard the Syrian and Egyptian pilgrimage routes.
1816 Egypt Political Context
Ibrahim Pasha leads Egypt’s expedition to Hijaz and crushes the Wahhabi Revolution.
1817 - 1821 Portugal Political Context
The emergence of liberal ideas. In Porto a Provisional Ruling Council is created (1820) and pursues the rebellion against British rule that started in Lisbon. Liberal revolution breaks out in Porto (August 1820), spreads to Lisbon, beginning the radical cycle known as Vintismo. King João VI is forced to return to Portugal from Brazil in 1821.
1819 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
The British put a stop to Qawasim hegemony in the Lower Gulf region by destroying their ports, strongholds, and fleets on both shores of the Arab Gulf.
1819 Germany Political Context
The Karlsbader Beschlüsse (Carlsbad Decrees) was intended to suppress liberal and national movements through censorship of the press and political persecution.
1820 - 1823 Spain Political Context
In 1820, the army mutiny led by Rafael del Riego leads to King Fernando VII accepting the Constitution, in spite of his former opposition to constitutional monarchy, bringing in the Trienio Liberal period of popular rule. The Congress of Verona in 1822 gives France a mandate to restore Fernando as absolute monarch. In 1823 the French army invades Spain to restore absolutism, ending the Trienio Liberal.
1820 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
The British impose a Peace Treaty on the Qawasim and other sheikhs of the Arab littoral of the Gulf. The signing is preceded by a preliminary agreement forcing the sheikhs to turn over all remaining vessels, fortifications and weapons in exchange for the restoration of their fishing and pearling vessels. The Treaty enjoins all signatories to fly a specific red-and-white flag.
1820 - 1831 Italy Political Context
In 1820–21 and 1830–31, uprisings in different parts of Italy in favour of national unification and constitutional rule. They meet harsh repression.
1821 - 1822 Romania Political Context
January 1821–July 1822: revolution in Moldavia and Wallachia against the Phanariotes (Greek rulers imposed by the Ottoman Empire since the beginning of the 18th century) and for social and economic measures to improve the lives of the people. After the suppression of the revolution the Empire appoints Romanian rulers in Moldavia (Ioniţă Sandu Sturdza) and Walachia (Grigore Dimitrie Ghica).
1821 Greece Political Context
The Greek Revolution against the Ottoman Empire begins.
1821 - 1825 Lebanon Political Context
Bashir Shihab II, who was elected as amir in 1788 under Ottoman suzerainty, is overthrown when he backs Acre, and flees to Egypt, later to return and form an army. Bashir Jumblatt, the Druze leader, gathers the Druze factions and declares a rebellion that leads to massacres and battles with the Maronites who support Bashir Shihab.
1822 - 1859 Morocco Political Context
At the beginning of his reign, Mulay Sulayman adopts a policy to isolate the country, excluding contact with the European and even Turkish worlds. He leant on the national brotherhoods and maintained mediaeval, feudal ways of life that eschewed Western technical innovations which he deemed to be dangerous. He nonetheless signed agreements with Portugal in 1823, England in 1824 and France in 1825, under pressure to change his position on account of the international situation. During the first third of the 19th century, Morocco was subject to systematic pressure from rapidly expanding European imperialism.
1822 Portugal Political Context
King João VI asks his heir Prince Pedro, Duke of Braganza (1798–1834) to remain in Brazil. Part of the court decides to stay there. Facing revolt against the anti-Brazilian policy of Portugal, Pedro proclaims the independence of Brazil on 7 September (Grito do Ipiranga). In October he is acclaimed as the first Brazilian Emperor, Pedro I.
1822 - 1829 Germany Political Context
The War between Greece and the Ottoman Empire concludes with Greece attaining its independence with the help of Russia and the Western nations.
1822 Portugal Political Context
1 October: Inspired by Cadiz Constitution members of Parliament authored the first liberal Constitution. King João VI (1767-1826) promulgated the document on 1 October 1822, in Lisbon. Royal prerogatives and the nobles and clergy privileges were limited, though with a weak impact.
1823 - 1825 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
After the defeat of the Qawasim by the British, a British Residency is established at Bushire on the Persian littoral to represent Britain’s political, economic and military interests there. Shortly after, a “Native Agent” is based in Sharjah as his representative. Native agents were generally non-Arab but Arabic-speaking Muslims from the Indian subcontinent or the Persian littoral of the Gulf, chosen for their loyalty to Britain and their in-depth local and regional knowledge. Their task was to monitor activities on the Trucial Coast and liaise with local powers on Britain’s behalf.
1823 Turkey Political Context
28 July: Treaty of Erzurum, which ends the Ottoman–Iranian war and restores the previous border.
1824 - 1891 Saudi Arabia Political Context
Following the events of 1818, the Hijaz returns to Ottoman rule. Then in 1824 the Second Saudi State emerges, led by Imam Turki bin Abdullah, and with its capital now in Riyad following the destruction of Dir‘iyya. Imam Turki is then succeeded by the sons Imam Abdallah and ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Faisal. In ‘Abd al-Rahman’s reign, in 1891, the Second Saudi State falls into the hands of his enemy al-Rashid. This prompts the king to leave Riyad for Kuwait with his family.
1825 Lebanon Political Context
Bashir Shihab II, helped by the Ottomans and by Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar (governor of Acre), defeats his rival in the Battle of Simqanieh. Bashir Jumblatt dies in Acre at the order of al-Jazzar. Bashir II represses the Druze rebellion, particularly in and around Beirut. This makes Bashir II the only leader of Mount Lebanon.
1826 - 1832 Portugal Political Context
With the death of his father, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil becomes Pedro IV of Portugal but gives up the throne to his daughter, future Queen Maria II. The proclamation of a moderate Constitutional Charter does not stop the absolutist movement led by his brother, Prince Miguel (1802–66), who disregards the rights of his niece Princess Maria and Pedro’s decision.
1826 Turkey Political Context
15–17 June: The abolition and extermination of the Janissary corps (the so-called Auspicious Incident) in İstanbul by troops loyal to Sultan Mahmud II. This act provides the conditions for institutional modernisation.
1827 Egypt Political Context
When under the command of an Ottoman representative the entire Egyptian navy is sunk by the European Allied fleet, Muhammad ‘Ali asks for the territory of Syria in compensation.
1827 Greece Political Context
The London Treaty: England, Russia and France suggest to the Ottoman Sultan that he should recognise Greek independence. This is the first step towards foundation of the Greek State.
1827 Turkey Political Context
20 October: A joint British, French and Russian fleet destroys the Ottoman and Egyptian navy at Navarino as the Sublime Porte did not accept the declaration of the UK, France and Russia for an autonomous Greece (in the Protocol of London, 6 July 1827).
1829 United Kingdom Political Context
The poet Lord Byron epitomises Romantic support for Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire. Over the next century, British opinion wavers between seeing the Ottoman Empire as a force for stability or one oppressing Christian populations – the Armenians and Balkan Christians.
1829 United Kingdom Political Context
Irish lawyer Daniel O’Connell leads the campaign for concession of Catholic Emancipation, which will allow Roman Catholics to sit in the UK Parliament. The campaign is successful, helped along by the death of George III, but O’Connell’s long-term goal is to repeal Ireland’s Act of Union with Great Britain.
1829 Romania Political Context
The peace Treaty of Edirne institutes the Russian protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia, which lasts until 1856. The Romanian countries remain under Russian occupation until 1834. Under the supervision of the Russian authorities in 1830–31 the Organic Regulations, considered to be the first Romanian constitutions, are drawn up and adopted.
1829 Turkey Political Context
14 September: Treaty of Adrianople (present-day Edirne). This treaty secures Greek independence and strengthens the autonomy of Wallachia, Moldavia (Romania), and Serbia.
1830 Tunisia Political Context
With the capture of Algiers, France ousts the Ottoman Empire and asserts its claim to the western Mediterranean. The beys and the regency’s elite then become aware of the dangers posed by the Europeans.
1830 - 1847 Germany Political Context
Stimulated by the French July Revolution, the Vormärz (pre-March) Revolution refers to the formation of political programmes and factional movements.
1830 - 1844 Morocco Political Context
The French expedition to Algeria arouses strong emotions in Morocco. It was understood to be a direct threat, in particular following incursions by French troops into eastern Morocco. Mulay ‘Abd al-Rahman accepted the call of the people of Tlemcen and gave his support to the religious and military leader ‘Abd al-Qadir.
1830 France Political Context
June–July: the invasion of Algiers.
1830 France Political Context
27–29 July: the Second French Revolution of July 1830 results in the fall of Charles X, who is succeeded by his cousin Louis-Philippe.
1830 France Political Context
The July Monarchy: Louis-Philippe becomes “Citizen-King”, and economic growth is joined by increased poverty.
1830 - 1840 Jordan Political Context
Bilad al-Sham (Greater Syria, including Jordan) is under Ibrahim Pasha who is ruling on behalf of his father, Muhammad 'Ali of Egypt. Ibrahim Pasha is forced to retreat to Egypt through Transjordan where the Egyptian army suffers severe casualties on its way back to Egypt.
1831 Italy Political Context
Giuseppe Mazzini founds the republican movement for national unification, Giovine Italia (Young Italy).
1831 Greece Political Context
The First Governor of Greece, Conte Ioannis Kapodistrias, is assassinated.
1831 Lebanon Political Context
Bashir II breaks away from the Ottoman Empire, allies with Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha of Egypt and assists his son Ibrahim Pasha in a siege of Acre. This siege lasts seven months before the fall of the city on 27 May 1832. They also conquer Damascus on 14 June 1832.
1832 Germany Political Context
From 27 to 30 May an apparently non-political country fair, the “Hambacher Fest”, was held by a German national democratic assembly, demanding freedom, national entity and popular sovereignty.
1832 - 1834 Portugal Political Context
Civil war. Pedro returns to Portugal as Regent to defend his daughter’s rights. He launches military operations from Azores and Porto against the absolutist faction of Prince Miguel favored by the Quadruple Alliance. After the Miguelists’ defeat, peace terms depend on the Évora-Monte Convention and Prince Miguel’s exile.
1833 Spain Political Context
Isabel II becomes Queen of Spain. The Salic Law forbidding women to reign had been abolished in 1830 because Fernando VII's only heirs were female. His brother, Carlos de Borbón, asserts his claim to the throne against his niece (first Carlist War, 1836–39); two further Carlist wars will follow (1846–49, 1872–76).
1833 Turkey Political Context
8 April: Treaty of Kütahya with Egypt. The Ottomans recognise Syria, Palestine and Lebanon as within the sphere of the Egyptian control.
1833 Turkey Political Context
8 July: Defensive Treaty of Hünkar İskelesi with Russia establishes Russian naval superiority in the Black Sea.
1834 United Kingdom Political Context
The development of steam power brings increased trade and travel to the eastern Mediterranean. This leads to the publication of travel literature and an interest in the archaeology of the Bible. A. W. Kinglake’s Eothen is the most widely read of the travel books.
1834 - 1836 Portugal Political Context
Queen Maria II (1819–53) regains the crown after her father’s death and the liberals’ victory. The Queen has to cope with the transition from absolutism to constitutionalism and disputes between opposing factions, conservatives on one side (Cartismo supporters of the 1826 Charter) and radicals on the other (Vintismo defenders of the Constitution of 1822).
1834 Serbia Political Context
In Vienna in 1813 Dimitrije Davidović, politician, diplomat, author of the Candlemas Constitution and one of the founders of journalism in Serbia, launches Novine Serbske, Serbia’s first daily newspaper. The newspapers are printed in Serbia for the first time in 1834.
1834 Spain Political Context
Estatuto Real signed by the Queen Regent, María Cristina de Borbón, as a royal charter similar to the one under the French King Louis XVIII. There is no constitution, but it has two chambers (similar to the British House of Lords and House of Commons) and a government, with a president and ministers.
1835 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
The British impose a Treaty to prohibit maritime warfare among the Arab littoral sheikhdoms during the pearling season from May to November with Britain as enforcer of the peace. The British now term the lands of the signatory sheikhdoms as “The Trucial Coast” or “Trucial Oman”. The Treaty is renewed regularly until 1853, when a Perpetual Treaty is put into place.
1835 Serbia Political Context
The First Constitution of the Principality of Serbia (the Candlemas Constitution) is prompted by the autocratic rule of Miloš Obrenović, founder of the Obrenović Dynasty and Serbian Prince (1815–39; 1858–60). It is signed in 1835 in the city of Kragujevac, with the intention to limit the absolute power of Miloš, but under pressure from the Porte (Turkish Government), Austria and Russia the Constitution is abolished as early as the following year.
1835 Turkey Political Context
Reorganisation of the bureaucracy and introduction of a new system of rank.
1836 Spain Political Context
The Queen Regent, María Cristina, is forced to reinstate the 1812 Constitution after a military coup (pronunciamiento) in order to get support from the liberals in the First Carlist War. Under the Desamortización de Mendizábal Church properties are disentailed to fund the war. General Espartero takes over the Regency from the Queen in 1841.
1836 - 1876 Spain Political Context
As a consequence of political instability and of a woman taking over the rule of Spain, the deeply conservative and ultra-Catholic Carlist party rises three times in three dynastic wars against the State (1836–39, 1846–49 and 1872–76).
1836 - 1842 Portugal Political Context
Period of Setembrismo: lower-middle-class rebellion against corruption and upper-middle-class privileges. An industrialisation process takes off to counteract foreign dominance. To overcome the loss of Brazilian revenues the colonisation of African possessions is boosted. The slave trade is prohibited in 1836 by abolitionist Marquis of Sá da Bandeira.
1837 - 1854 Tunisia Political Context
Rule of Ahmad Pasha Bey, known as the “Great Reformer” of modern Tunisia. His greatest achievements include modernisation of the army and the abolition of slavery.
1838 Turkey Political Context
Founding of the Ministry of Finance and formation of Sublime Council for Judicial Ordinances. The title “grand vizier” becomes “prime minister".
1838 Serbia Political Context
Founding of Belgrade University.
1839 United Kingdom Political Context
British control of India is driven by trade. Steamships require fuelling stations. To this purpose Aden is occupied and controlled imperially from India for a century. Most British control of the Middle East is indirect and informal. Aden becomes a Crown Colony, with partial control of the Hinterland.
1839 - 1861 Turkey Political Context
Reign of Sultan Abdülmecid.
1839 Turkey Political Context
3 November: Mustafa Reşid Paşa declares the Imperial Rescript of Gülhane (the beginning of the Tanzimat reforms), granting basic rights to Ottoman subjects and declaring a policy of state reform. These reforms included the "fair and public trial[s] of all accused regardless of religion”, the creation of a system of "separate competences, religious and civil”, and the validity of non-Muslim testimony.
1840 - 1841 Austria Political Context
Austria cooperates in a settlement to the Turkish–Egyptian crisis of 1840, sending intervention forces to conquer the Ottoman fortresses of Saida (Sidon) and St Jean d’Acre, and concluding with the Dardanelles Treaty signed at the London Straits Convention of 1841.
1840 Turkey Political Context
After his term as governor in Samos, Kostaki Musurus Paşa, a Phanariot Greek becomes the first Ottoman envoy to independent Athens (1840–47) followed by Vienna (1848) and London (1851–55).
1840 Lebanon Political Context
Conflicts between the Druze and the Maronite Christians explode. A Maronite revolt against the feudal class erupts, lasting till 1858.
1841 Turkey Political Context
13 July: The Straits Convention, signed by the Ottoman Empire and the great powers, prohibits foreign warships from entering the Bosphorus or the Dardanelles.
1842 - 1851 Portugal Political Context
The period of Cabralismo, an authoritarian regime ruled by conservative Bernardo Costa Cabral who rehabilitates the 1826 Constitutional Charter but promoting the public infrastructures and fiscal code revision. Upper middle class and aristocracy regain state control and former privileges. Popular rebellions lead to the fall of his government.
1842 United Kingdom Political Context
Evangelists in Britain and Germany found the Jerusalem Protestant bishopric. There is an idea of converting Jews – the first bishop is a converted Jew – and the bishopric establishes a British cultural and educational interest in the Levant. It also stimulates archaeological work.
1843 - 1868 Spain Political Context
Isabel II comes of age in 1843. During her reign the political parties are divided into liberals and conservatives. The Church regains its privileges under the 2nd Concordat signed in 1851. The Queen's rule ends in 1868 with the revolution known as La Gloriosa (the Glorious Revolution).
1844 Morocco Political Context
The Battle of Isly is fought on 14 August 1844 between the Moroccan army employing an archaic strategy against professional soldiers trained in the Napoleonic campaigns and armed with batteries of light guns. The battle ended with the defeat of the Moroccans. The consequences of this defeat were grave for Morocco. It was the first time the country had lost a battle in more than two centuries, and it showed Mulay ‘Abd al-Rahman just how weak his army was.
1844 Serbia Political Context
Serbia’s oldest museum, Museum Serbski, now the National Museum in Belgrade, is founded by the Minister of Education Jovan Sterija Popović.
1848 Germany Political Context
The German National Assembly meets in Frankfurt.
1848 France Political Context
Revolution of February 1848: Louis-Philippe abdicates and the Republic is proclaimed.
1848 - 1852 France Political Context
During the Second Republic a number of social reforms take place, including universal male suffrage and the abolition of slavery. In December 1848 Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (grand-nephew of Napoleon I) takes over as president of the Republic and reverts to a more conservative political position. He sets up an authoritarian regime by coup d'état (December 1851), and declares himself emperor in 1852.
1848 Germany Political Context
Establishment of the first parliament in German history (at the Paulskirche, Frankfurt am Main), and elaboration of the German Imperial Constitution.
1848 Serbia Political Context
The Serbian uprising against the Austrian monarchy sees the formation of Srpsko Vojvodstvo (the Serbian Duchy). Stevan Knićanin-Vojvoda (military commander) commands Serbian volunteers during the Hungarian Revolution (1848–49).
1848 - 1849 Italy Political Context
Uprisings in different parts of Italy demand constitutional rule and national unification. In Rome and Venice, short-lived republics are proclaimed. King Carlo Alberto (Kingdom of Sardinia) grants a constitution and wages war against the Austrian Empire, but he is defeated.
1848 - 1849 Austria Political Context
Revolution in Austria-Hungary and northern Italy.
1848 - 1849 Germany Political Context
The Pre-March Revolution involves a series of protests, gatherings and disturbances, but by July 1849 the Bundes troops are victorious and the revolution fails.
1848 - 1849 Romania Political Context
Revolution in the Romanian countries: in Wallachia and Moldavia revolutionaries demand their countries’ right to self-determination, while in Transylvania Romanians want equal rights to those of the Hungarians and Germans.
1849 Germany Political Context
The Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV refuses the German Imperial Crown.
1849 Germany Political Context
The German National Assembly approves the Constitution of the German Empire.
1851 - 1868 Portugal Political Context
Regeneration, led mainly by Minister Fontes Pereira Melo (who gives the period name – Fontism) is a peaceful political cycle of global innovation started in 1851. The kingdom is tired of political unrest. Conditions are created for the middle classes and foreign investors to support economic expansion, the development of infrastructure and industrialisation.
1852 Italy Political Context
Cavour (Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, 1810–61), the architect of the diplomatic strategies that allowed Italian unification, becomes prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia (he will remain prime minister until his death).
1852 - 1870 France Political Context
After an authoritarian period (1852–60), during which time freedoms are severely restricted and political opponents are forced into exile, the Second Empire is declared and the political climate becomes more liberal and the economy grows.
1853 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
A Treaty of Maritime Peace in Perpetuity is concluded between Britain and the Trucial Coast rulers. Britain assumes the right to police maritime peace and commits to protecting the sheikhdoms from external interference and attack.
1853 - 1856 Greece Political Context
The Crimean War starts in October 1853. On one side is the Russian Empire and on the other the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, France and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Greece participates with a volunteer corps of 1,000 men as one of Russia’s few allies.
1853 - 1856 Turkey Political Context
War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire and its allies France, UK and Piedmont-Savoy. The Crimean War is a consequence of rivalry over the Eastern Question and France’s support of Catholic claims and Russia’s support of Orthodox claims to control the holy sites in Jerusalem. Russia seeks to exploit Ottoman political weakness to gain diplomatic rights for Orthodox subjects of the Empire. Peace established by the Treaty of Paris (1856).
1854 United Kingdom Political Context
Russia’s expansion to the Black Sea and the Caucasus encroach on, seize and annex Ottoman possessions. Britain and France support Ottoman resistance, targeting the Russian naval base in Crimea. Britain provides military and naval support to the Ottoman armed force.
1854 Turkey Political Context
The Tanzimat Council appoints a City Ordering Commission (Intizam-ı Şehir Heyeti), comprising Ottoman and foreign residents, charged with developing new regulation to transform the structure of Instanbul into a municipal government. It recommends establishment of a commission to enforce urban regulations and improve the city's physical make-up, financed through a separate tax structure.
1855 Italy Political Context
The Kingdom of Sardinia participates in the Crimean war as part of the Anglo-French alliance against Russia.
1856 Turkey Political Context
28 February: Under diplomatic pressure, the Sublime Porte is forced to declare the Imperial Rescript of Reforms (Islahat Fermanı), giving the empire admission to the Concert of Europe. The Rescript states the equality of Muslims and non-Muslims before law, the right of non-Muslims to be admitted to government and military service, and abolition of the poll tax and freedom in education for non-Muslims.
1856 Morocco Political Context
In 1856 a treaty is signed, initiated by Britain in order to strengthen its influence over Morocco and to maintain its naval supremacy in the Mediterranean, which hugely undermines Moroccan sovereignty. This treaty wrested control over the extent of European penetration away from the governing institution of Morocco the Makhzen. The advantages gained by European traders, combined with their superior technique and the quantity of capital behind them, enabled then to monopolise most of the sea trade and to reduce Moroccan players to mere intermediaries.
1856 Romania Political Context
At the Congress of Paris peace conference, Wallachia and Moldavia are put under the collective guarantee of the Great Powers (Austria, Russia, Prussia, Piedmont, the UK and France), while remaining under Ottoman sovereignty. The Russian protectorate over the Romanian countries is ended. Moldavia receives the southeast of Bessarabia.
1856 Turkey Political Context
30 March: The Paris Treaty marks the end of the Crimean War (1853–56); the Ottoman Empire is admitted into the Concert of Europe.
1857 Tunisia Political Context
Promulgation of the Fundamental Pact by Muhammad Pasha Bey: a “Declaration of Rights” in 11 points. The pact guarantees Tunisians and also foreigners their civil and political rights, security of persons and properties, equality before the law, etc.
1858 Germany Political Context
King Wilhelm I – later Kaiser (Emperor) of the Second Empire – assumes his regency.
1858 Romania Political Context
19 August: the Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Piedmont, the UK and France sign the Paris Convention marking the creation of the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, with separate rulers, legislative and executive powers, and only two institutions in common (Supreme Court of Appeals and central legislative commission). The convention replaces the Organic Regulations, becoming the new constitution of the United Principalities.
1859 - 1861 Romania Political Context
Union of Moldavia and Wallachia. In January 1859 Alexandru Ioan Cuza is elected ruler of both Moldavia and Wallachia, the double election being recognised by the Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire. In November 1861 the sultan issues a ferman approving the political and administrative union of Moldavia and Wallachia during Cuza’s reign. The United Principalities could now have a single government and parliament.
1859 - 1873 Morocco Political Context
Reign of Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman: with a view to overhauling the machinery of administration, Muhammad IV creates an administrative school, the Madrasa Makhzenia, and proceeds to modernise financial and tax services. He also thought about modernising the army, both in terms of soldier training and equipment. This was eventually achieved by his son Mulay al-Hasan I.
1859 - 1860 Spain Political Context
War declared on Morocco. Battles of Castillejos (Fnidq) and Wad-Ras. A peace agreement is signed with the Moroccan Sultan leaving Tetouan under Spanish rule.
1859 - 1861 Italy Political Context
The Kingdom of Sardinia, backed by France, wages war against the Austrian Empire and annexes Milan. Pro-unification insurrections in central Italy; Garibaldi leads an expedition of 1,000 volunteers in Southern Italy. Italy is unified under King Victor Emanuel II (formerly King of Sardinia) as a constitutional monarchy.
1859 Serbia Political Context
The Hatišerif (Turkish edict) is issued in 1838, allowing the Sovjet (Council) to limit the powers of Prince Miloš Obrenović. Unwilling to accept this however, Miloš abdicates and leaves Serbia in 1839. Prince Mihailo Obrenović reigns for a short time before the Karađorđević Dynasty regains the Serbian throne in 1842. The 1858 Svetoandrejska skupština (Assembly convened on St Andrew’s Day) decides on a change of dynasty, overthrowing Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević and reinstating Miloš Obrenović. A 37-strong deputation from the Assembly, with a massive, heavily armed entourage, leaves Belgrade for Bucharest to bring the newly elected prince back to the country, marking the beginning of Miloš’ second, but short-lived reign, which ends when he dies in 1860.
1859 - 1860 Morocco Political Context
The Tétouan war of 6 February 1860: the Spanish, seeking to extend the borders of Ceuta and Melilla, exploit a raid by a neighbouring tribe against a redoubt built outside the walls of Ceuta to launch a major military action and occupy Tétouan. To end the occupation of Tétouan, the Moroccan state was obliged to pay a significant sum (20 million douros), which it was unable to do. As a result, it was forced to seek a foreign loan that it was able to pay back using customs revenues.
1859 Austria Political Context
Defeat of the Austrians by a French and Sardinian Army at the Battle of Solferino on 24 June sees terrible losses on both sides.
1859 Austria Political Context
At the Peace of Zürich (10 November) Austria cedes Lombardy, but not Venetia, to Napoleon III; in turn, Napoleon hands the province over to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
1860 Italy Political Context
The right to vote is reserved for a small elite of men who have certain levels of income and education: only 2.2% of the Italians can vote.
1860 Lebanon Political Context
Yusuf Bek Butros Karam, a Lebanese Maronite born in 1823 fights in the 1860 civil war and leads a rebellion in 1866-67 against the Ottoman Empire’s rule in Mount Lebanon. His proclamations have been interpreted as an early expression of Lebanese nationalism.
1860 Lebanon Political Context
A full-scale war erupts between Maronites and Druze. Napoleon III of France sends 7,000 troops to Beirut and helps impose a partition: Druze control of the territory is recognised as the fact on the ground, and the Maronites are forced into an enclave. This is ratified by the Concert of Europe in 1861.
1861 Lebanon Political Context
In the aftermath of the Lebanese civil war in 1860, the Ottoman authorities impose a new system of government for the mountain districts of Lebanon. Formerly, the region had been divided into two districts, one with a Maronite Christian administrator and the other with a Druze. The Ottomans combine them into a single district, known as the mutasarrifiyya.
1861 - 1876 Turkey Political Context
Reign of Sultan Abdülaziz.
1861 Tunisia Political Context
Muhammad Sadiq Bey promulgates a constitution limiting his powers. Tunisia’s first constitution is the culmination of the reformist policies of the 19th-century Husaynid beys.
1862 Germany Political Context
Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister of Prussia.
1863 Morocco Political Context
The intention of the trade treaty signed with France in August 1863 is to curb the damaging effects of protectionism and to limit the extent of European penetration but, subverted from its original purpose, it becomes one of the causes of the protectionism problem. The Dahir of June 1864 then proclaimed freedom of trade throughout the Sharifian Empire. The conventions of 1856, 1860–1 and 1863 established the legal bases for relations between Morocco and Europe. Europe’s influence then began to grow.
1864 Romania Political Context
14 May: coup d’état of Alexandru Ioan Cuza, who dissolves parliament and proposes a new constitutional project, which is voted the same month and ratified by the Ottoman Empire and the guaranteeing Powers in June 1864. The Statute Expanding the Paris Convention assigned greater power to the prince and the government.
1864 Greece Political Context
The Ionian islands are incorporated within the newly established Greek State.
1864 Germany Political Context
As a consequence of the Prussian–Danish war, Denmark retracts its demand for Schleswig and Holstein.
1864 Tunisia Political Context
The popular uprising sounds the death knell for reform. The great figure of this insurrection, ‘Ali bin Ghedham, comes from the region of Kasserine.
1864 Lebanon Political Context
Dawud Pasha (the mutasarrif [governor] of Lebanon, appointed by the Ottomans) restores to Lebanon a part of its lost territory, establishes for the Druze a school in Abayh that still bears his name and struggles against the feudal lords in the south and the clerical party in the north.
1865 Turkey Political Context
Formation of Young Ottoman opposition against the bureaucratic domination of Ali Paşa and Fuad Paşa.
1866 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
Qawasim lands are divided among the four sons of Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr following his death. The number of Trucial States rises from five to nine.
1866 Italy Political Context
Italy participates in the Austro-Prussian War on the side of Prussia and annexes Venice.
1866 Romania Political Context
14–20 April: plebiscite leading to German Prince Carol de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen being elected ruler of the United Principalities and recognised by the Ottoman Empire in October. On 13 July a new constitution is adopted, based on the Belgian one from 1835.
1866 Romania Political Context
February: because of his authoritative regime, Cuza is forced to abdicate by a coalition of conservative and liberal-radical politicians.
1866 Austria Political Context
Following defeat at the Battle of Königgrätz (3 October), at the Peace of Vienna, Austria is forced to cede the Venetian province to Italy.
1867 Italy Political Context
Uprising in Rome demanding unification with Italy. At the same time, Garibaldi leads an expedition of volunteers that enters the Papal States and tries to seize Rome. Roman rebels are defeated and executed. Garibaldi is defeated by Papal troops backed by a French expeditionary corps (France protects the Papal States).
1867 Romania Political Context
The centre of present-day Transylvania is integrated into the Hungarian kingdom after the creation of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Partium and Banat had already been included in Hungary.
1867 United Kingdom Political Context
The 1850s and 1860s sees close political, commercial and cultural relations between the Ottoman Empire and Britain. The zenith of this relationship is the state visit of Ottoman Sultan ‘Abd al-‘Aziz to France and then Britain. The Prince of Wales then reciprocates with a visit to Constantinople, Damascus and Jerusalem in 1869.
1867 Turkey Political Context
8 June: The Egyptian governor receives from the Sublime Porte the title of “khedive,” which provides him legislative independence.
1868 Spain Political Context
Carlist wars, economic crisis (1866–68) and disgruntlement with Queen Isabel II and the government explode in the September revolution known as La Gloriosa. The revolution is followed by six years of democratic government under Amadeo I, from the Italian Saboya family, (1870–73) and then under the first Spanish Republic (1873–74), causing the 3rd Carlist war.
1869 United Kingdom Political Context
Built largely with French expertise and capital, the Suez Canal shortens the journey to India. The British government secures a major financial interest in the Canal in 1876, and its security becomes a major British interest for the following century.
1870 - 1912 Italy Political Context
In 1870, taking advantage of French defeat at the hands of Prussia, the Italian army captures Rome, which becomes the capital of Italy. The Pope considers Italian rule on Rome to be illegitimate and bans Catholics from participating in Italian political life. In the following decades the ban is progressively lifted to counter socialist growth.
1870 Lebanon Political Context
Ottomans appoint Rustam Pasha as mutasarrif (governor). He is an equally firm and economical administrator.
1870 France Political Context
The Franco-Prussian War: France's defeat to Prussia results in the abdication of Napoleon III. Proclamation of the Third Republic.
1870 France Political Context
The Third Republic had a difficult start: the Treaty of Versailles with Prussia granting Alsace and Lorraine to the German Empire, and repression of the Commune. After a period known as the “Moral Order”, the Opportunist (1879–98) or Radical Republic (1898–1914) set up a large number of reforms in all areas, which include among others: a law on primary education (1881–2); a law on freedom of the press (1881); the restoration of the law on divorce (1884); a law allowing Trades Unions (1884); and a law on the separation of Church and State (1905).
1871 France Political Context
When the people of Paris refuse to accept defeat and take up arms the Versailles-based government resist and harshly repress the "Commune".
1871 Germany Political Context
The German Empire, a union of sovereign states and free cities, is established under Prussian leadership.
1873 - 1894 Morocco Political Context
Reign of Mulay al-Hasan I: Mulay al-Hasan I maintains the political independence of the country. He attempted to adapt the country to its new circumstances and employed a policy of reforms, affecting all areas of political and economic life, to improve the management of public affairs.
1873 - 1947 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
The government of British India administers the Trucial Coast.
1873 - 1877 Tunisia Political Context
The regency of Khayr al-Din, the Grand Vizier reformer, who reorganises institutions and the economy. His major cultural works are the creation of Sadiki College and major reform of the Zaytuna Mosque.
1873 Turkey Political Context
1 April: Namık Kemal’s play Vatan Yahud Silistre arouses patriotic sentiments in İstanbul.
1874 - 1885 Spain Political Context
Restoration of the monarchy. A military uprising under General Martínez Campos in Sagunto against the Republic returns the throne to the Bourbon Dynasty, with Alfonso XII (son of Isabel II) as King.
1875 - 1893 Romania Political Context
Creation of the first Romanian political parties: the Liberal Party (1875), the Conservative Party (1880), the Radical-Democratic Party (1888), and the Social-Democratic Party of Romanian Labourers (1893).
1875 - 1878 Serbia Political Context
During the 1875 Bosnia-Herzegovina rebellion against Ottoman authority, the principalities of Serbia and Montenegro provide the insurgents with moral, material and military support, which leads to the first Serbo-Turkish War in 1876. Having been a long time in preparation, the rebellion is widespread and raises questions not only about Serbia but also about the East, thus becoming an event of European importance. Its outcome is the convocation of the Berlin Congress (1878), at which both Serbia and Montenegro gain independence, and Austria-Hungary takes over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
1876 Portugal Political Context
Partido Histórico and Partido Reformista merge into the Partido Progressista in September. Power alternation with the Partido Regenerador framed rotativism. They were able to carry out some urgent reforms but in the end the system soon degenerated into political conformism.
1876 - 1909 Turkey Political Context
Reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II.
1876 Turkey Political Context
23 December: Promulgation of the first Ottoman constitution.
1877 - 1881 Romania Political Context
After Parliament declares Romania’s independence (May 1877), Romania participates alongside Russia in the Russian-Ottoman war. The Congress of Berlin (1878) recognises the independence of Romania, which receives the greater part of Dobruja, but cedes the south of Bessarabia to Russia. In March 1881 Romania is proclaimed a kingdom. Prince Carol and his wife Elizabeth are crowned as King and Queen of Romania in May in Bucharest.
1877 Turkey Political Context
19 March: Opening of the parliament.
1878 United Kingdom Political Context
Uprisings in the Balkan Ottoman territories lead to disproportionate reprisals. Popular protests in Britain oppose support for the Ottoman Empire. In contrast to the Crimean War, Britain provides no military aid to the Ottomans in their war with Russia. Diplomatic support is rewarded however, with Britain’s occupation of Cyprus confirmed at the Congress of Berlin.
1878 Turkey Political Context
3 March: Russo-Turco Treaty of St Stefano defines Bulgaria, which includes present-day Bulgaria, present-day Macedonia and northern Greece.
1878 Turkey Political Context
13 March: Abdülhamid II dissolves parliament.
1878 Austria Political Context
In June the signatories at the Congress of Berlin grant Austria the right to occupy and fully administer Bosnia and Herzegovina for an undetermined period.
1879 - 1882 Egypt Political Context
The ’Urabi Revolution, led by Colonel Ahmed ’Urabi, erupts in February 1879 and continues until 1882. It is the first revolution of the modern age in Egypt.
1880 Morocco Political Context
The intention of the 1880 Madrid Conference, reflected in the agreements signed by Morocco under the reign of Mulay al-Hasan I and the countries of Europe, is to enhance the benefits of reform in Morocco and to provide a legal and regulatory framework for Mulay al-Hasan I. Following these agreements, the European countries won the right to own land and assets throughout Morocco. The agreements were the result of globalisation of Moroccan business.
1881 - 1884 Tunisia Political Context
Tunisians put up stiff resistance to French occupation without any external support. The Sublime Porte, itself threatened by the Western powers, limits the show of protest against the French occupation.
1881 - 1883 Tunisia Political Context
At the metropolitan palace, Muhammad Sadiq Bey signs the treaty imposed by the French Protectorate known as the Treaty of Bardo (or Treaty of Kasser al-Sa‘id). This is followed by the Convention of Marsa in 1883. The Regency of Tunis passes from Ottoman suzerainty to French domination.
1881 Austria Political Context
The alliance of the three Emperors of Germany, Russia and Austria recognise the Habsburg Empire’s predominance in the western Balkans. In June, Austria reaches an agreement with King Milan I of Serbia, whereby Austria promises to support an eventual Serbian expansion in the south, while Serbia agrees to exclude any agreement with other powers without Austria’s prior approval.
1882 Egypt Political Context
Britain occupies Egypt.
1882 United Kingdom Political Context
Britain also acquires indirect control over Egypt, with an occupying army and control over Egyptian finances and administration. Egyptian tourism flourishes and with it a superficial economic development – an affluent class, construction of railways and building projects. However, European cultural influences in Egypt are mostly French.
1882 - 1896 Italy Political Context
Italy’s first African war: in 1882 Italy starts colonial expansion in the Horn of Africa; in 1890, Eritrea becomes an Italian colony. Afterwards, Italy attempts to penetrate into Ethiopia and suffers a crushing defeat at Adwa (the biggest African victory over a colonial army): Italy loses 4,000 Italian and 2,000 colonial soldiers. The Crispi government resigns.
1882 Italy Political Context
The Triple Alliance formed (Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary).
1882 Italy Political Context
Electoral reform: the right to vote is extended to 7 per cent of the Italian population, by lowering the age limit (from 25 to 21) and the level of income required.
1882 Serbia Political Context
The first king of Serbia in the modern age is Milan Obrenović, Prince (1822–82) and King (1882–89). From the start of his independent reign, Knez Milan works to build up the military, and sides with Russia in his foreign policy. He declares war on Turkey in 1876, but it ends in Serbia’s defeat due to poorly prepared diplomatic policy. The signing of the Treaty of San Stefano (made between the two countries after the Russo-Turkish War) is followed by an about-face in Knez Milan’s policy as he turns more and more to Austria-Hungary. A decision by the Congress of Berlin in 1878 grants Serbia independence, while the Secret Convention (between Serbia and Austria-Hungary) binds Austria-Hungary into declaring Serbia a kingdom in 1882.
1883 (18 October) - 1883 (30 October) Romania Political Context
30 October: by signing a treaty with Austro-Hungary, to which Germany adheres the same day and Italy in 1888, Romania becomes part of the Triple Alliance.
1883 Austria Political Context
In October, the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef concludes a secret alliance with the Hohenzollern King of Romania, Carol I, against Russia.
1884 - 1885 Portugal Political Context
Berlin Conference called by Portugal to regulate European colonisation and convened by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. The Portuguese government presents the "Pink Map”, a project uniting the colonies of Angola and Mozambique through the corridor of land that separates them. The proposal is rejected by England although endorsed by the majority of countries.
1884 Serbia Political Context
The first Serbian railway and railway bridge is built in Belgrade.
1885 Spain Political Context
Death of King Alfonso XII. Alfonso XIII born posthumously. Pacto de El Pardo: agreement between liberals and conservatives to rule the country by turns. Regency of Queen María Cristina until 1902 when King Alfonso XIII comes of age.
1889 Portugal Political Context
10 October: Coronation of King Carlos I (28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908) Despite the King’s attempt to reform the political system, the growing urban influence of the Republican Party and the people´s discontent were fostered by cash payments made to the Royal House.
1889 France Political Context
The World Fair in Paris showcases the development of the latest industrial processes, and the Eiffel Tower is constructed for it.
1890 - 1908 Portugal Political Context
The British Ultimatum (11 January 1890) pressures Portugal to withdraw from southern Africa resulting in popular outrage and unrest. The bankruptcy of 1892, anti-monarchic sentiment against King Carlos I, the cost of living and unfulfilled popular needs are major drivers of the Republican movement.
1890s United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
There is a notable increase in the activity of foreign powers – especially Ottoman Turkey, France and Russia – in the Gulf region. Germany also makes its first appearance. The main interests for all of them are economic and geostrategic.
1892 Italy Political Context
Italian Socialist Party founded.
1892 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
The British government effectively becomes the ruler of the Trucial Coast when the sheikhs are forced to pledge that neither they nor their descendants will enter agreements with or grant territorial rights to any government or their representatives other than Britain.
1892 - 1895 Romania Political Context
In 1892 a delegation of 237 Romanians sends Emperor Franz Joseph a Memorandum protesting against the discriminatory effects of the union of Transylvania with Hungary (1867). In 1893 the signatories of the petition are sent for trial at the end of which, in May 1894, they are sentenced to prison. However, in 1895 the Emperor amnesties them.
1893 Qatar Political Context
The Battle of al-Wajba is a victory for Sheikh Jassim and Qatar. This represents a decisive moment in the nation's history, asserting Qatar's independence from direct Ottoman interference.
1894 - 1898 France Political Context
The Dreyfus Affair: Captain Dreyfus is unjustly accused of espionage, is militarily degraded, and then deported at the end of the trial. The writer Émile Zola denounces this situation in a pamphlet entitled J’accuse. The case divides France; it is recognised that Dreyfus is innocent.
1894 - 1908 Morocco Political Context
Having ascended to the throne too young, Mulay ‘Abd al ‘Aziz must act under the regency of his father mulay al-Hasan I’s chamberlain for almost six years. Upon his father death in 1900, Mulay ‘Abd al ‘Aziz took up the reins of power and made clear his desire to restructure the governing institution of Morocco, the Makhzen. He worked on the modernisation of the army and stabilisation of the currency. He relaunched the project to ensure universal application of the tartib tax, which he wanted to apply to all foreigners and protégés. This project naturally displeased the consular corps.
1895 Greece Political Context
Prime Minister Charilaos Trikoupis declares that Greece is bankrupt.
1896 Austria Political Context
Russia recognises Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, a former Austrian officer, as the new Prince of Bulgaria.
1897 - 1898 Italy Political Context
Widespread demonstrations and riots against high bread price. The government uses the army to repress protests: in Milan 85 demonstrators are killed.
1897 Greece Political Context
Defeat of the Greek Army during the Greek–Turkish War.
1898 Italy Political Context
Anarchist Gaetano Bresci kills the King Umberto I, in revenge for the protesters killed in Milan in 1898. Victor Emanuel III becomes King of Italy.
1898 - 1900 Germany Political Context
Development and rearmament (Aufrüstung) of the German Navy.
1898 United Kingdom Political Context
Sudan is in possession of the Egyptians until a Sudanese revolt under the Mahdi severs the connection. It is brought back to Anglo-Egyptian rule with a military conquest led by an Egyptian army officered by the British. Control of Sudan facilitated British colonial expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa.
1901 United Kingdom Political Context
The British Viceroy, Lord Curzon, visits the sheikhdoms of the Gulf to confirm treaties of protection that exclude other European powers. Iraq and Arabia fall under a British- Indian sphere of influence with the Indian rupee as the principal currency. Curzon’s policy lasts until 1970.
1901 - 1909 Saudi Arabia Political Context
Under the Ottoman Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid, the Hijaz Railway is built, running from Istanbul to the Medina (Madinah) province.
1901 - 1914 Italy Political Context
Almost uninterrupted rule by Giovanni Giolitti, who allows more freedom of action to trade unions, introduces some social reforms and makes some openings for Socialists and Catholics.
1901 - 1903 Greece Political Context
Under the leadership of King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, Greece defeats the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the Balkan Wars.
1902 - 1920 Saudi Arabia Political Context
In 1902, age 19, King ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman, along with a small army, returns to Riyad to reclaim his family legacy. Managing to take Riyad, ‘Abd al-Rahman then begins to unify modern Saudi Arabia.
1903 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
British Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Lord Curzon, visits the Trucial sheikhs at Sharjah to reaffirm Britain’s commitment to “guardianship and protection” and the British Government’s position as “your overlords and protectors”. Curzon asserts that continued British control of India depends on maintaining British supremacy in the Gulf.
1903 Serbia Political Context
A military coup brings about restitution of the Karađorđević Dynasty.
1903 Austria Political Context
The young King Alexander of Serbia is brutally murdered in an officers’ conspiracy in June. The replacement of the pro-Austrian Obrenović Dynasty by the pro-Russian House of Karađorđević under Peter I, changes the balance of power in the Balkans.
1904 - 1912 Spain Political Context
After the loss of its last colonies, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines, Spain focuses on North Africa in the framework of the colonial interests of other European powers such as France, the UK and Germany. After different international talks and agreements – Spanish–French Agreement (1904), Algeciras Conference (1906), Cartagena Declarations (1907) – Spain and France sign in November 1912 the Treaty establishing the French and Spanish Protectorates in Morocco.
1905 Morocco Political Context
Emperor Wilhelm II visits Tangiers on 3 March 1905, keen to prevent diplomatic isolation of his country and to safeguard Germany’s economic interests.
1906 Morocco Political Context
The Algeciras Conference of 1906 endorses the intervention of Western powers in Morocco, granting special rights to both Spain and France.
1907 - 1912 Morocco Political Context
A series of incidents provoke the intervention of the French army when in August 1907 the French land in Casablanca and occupy Oujda, Casablanca and Fez, despite opposition from Germany.
1907 Morocco Political Context
Colonial rivalries: the Moroccan crisis brings about a new raft of trade agreements between the English and the French, with the participation of the Spanish, sharing out Morocco and Egypt, which is greeted with dismay by Moroccans.
1907 - 1912 Tunisia Political Context
The Young Tunisians found the first French-language newspaper Le Tunisien. Echoes of their militant action are seen in the riots of Djellaz on 11 November 2011 and the tramway accident on 8 February 1912.
1908 Portugal Political Context
1 February: The assassination of King Carlos I and his heir-apparent Prince Royal Luis Filipe in Terreiro do Paço in central Lisbon, fomented by, among other things, the King’s appointment of João Franco as head of government in 1906; with the King’s consent he set up a dictatorship one year later. Queen Amelia and Prince Manuel escape and the prince is enthroned as King Manuel II.
1908 Germany Political Context
Austria-Hungary annexes the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Following international protests, Germany shows solidarity with Austria.
1908 Turkey Political Context
4 July: Young Turk Revolution.
1908 Turkey Political Context
23 July: The Constitution of 1876 is restored and the Committee of the Union and Congress (CUP) takes control over the administration.
1908 Austria Political Context
The Austrian Government proclaims the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the evacuation of Austrian troops from the Sanjak on 6 October. The Austrian annexation then escalates into a major international crisis, which sees Serbia’s future hope to establish a Yugoslav empire shattered.
1909 - 1926 Spain Political Context
Military actions in northern Morocco to prevent attacks by local tribesmen around Melilla are very unpopular in Spain because of forced levies. The levy decree of 1909 causes uprisings in Barcelona and other Catalonian cities known as Semana Trágica/Setmana Tràgica (Tragic Week). Spain is ultimately successful in the lengthy Rif War (1921–26) in preserving its rule over northern Morocco although in 1921 its army retreats with huge losses.
1909 Turkey Political Context
The 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası/Olayı or Hadisesi) is a rebellion on 13 April (31 March in official Rumi calendar) in Constantinople against restoration of the constitutional system. It is the culmination of the Ottoman countercoup that attempted to end the Second Constitutional Era in the empire and the newly established influence of the Committee of Union and Progress in order to reaffirm Abdülhamid II as absolute monarch.
1909 Turkey Political Context
27 April: Unseating of Sultan Abdülhamid II and accession of Sultan Mehmed V.
1910 Portugal Political Context
The Republic is proclaimed in Lisbon on 5 October. King Manuel II is forced to exile in England together with his mother Queen Amelia who ends up in her homeland France. A Provisional Government is set up, headed by Teófilo Braga, a well-known respected jurist and writer. The new cabinet ruled until the first republican Constitution was enacted.
1911 Portugal Political Context
April: First Republican Constitution enacted. Manuel de Arriaga is elected as the first President. It is believed that the Republic will address the economic crisis and promote progress. Though bringing together political forces, the regime is too vague to achieve the necessary economic and social reforms and soon ends up in political fragmentation and infighting.
1911 - 1912 Italy Political Context
Italo-Turkish war: Italy gains possession of Libya and the Dodecanese Islands.
1912 Italy Political Context
The right to vote is extended to all men above the age of 30 (or aged 21 if they completed primary school). The Pope allows Catholics to vote.
1912 - 1913 Greece Political Context
The Treaty of Sèvres is ratified after the victory of the Balkan Wars and the end of World War I. Consequently, Greece gains administration of the area of Smyrna.
1912 - 1913 Serbia Political Context
The First Balkan War begins in October 1912 between Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire; Montenegro is accused of igniting it by attacking Skadar. At the request of Turkey, an armistice is concluded in December 1912. Negotiations in London fail and the war continues into 1913. A Peace Treaty is signed in London in May 1913. Turkey surrenders all territories west of the Enos-Midija. The Serbian Navy withdraws from the sea; in November 1912, Albania is formed due to Austrian pressure.
1912 Morocco Political Context
Mulay ‘Abd al ‘Aziz is deposed and replaced by his brother Mulay ‘Abd al-Hafiz (1908–12), who is proclaimed ruler in Marrakesh on 6 August 1907. He was then obliged to sign the treaty establishing the protectorate in Fez on 20 March 1912.
1912 Morocco Political Context
In November 1912 the Madrid Convention makes northern Morocco a Spanish protectorate.
1913 Serbia Political Context
The Second Balkan War begins due to a quarrel between Serbia and Bulgaria over the division of joint conquests. Bulgaria attacks Serbia and Greece in 1923; the Bulgarians are defeated on both fronts. Subsequently, Turkey and Romania declare war on Bulgaria and the Bulgarians soon request an armistice. The war ends with a Peace Treaty signed in Bucharest in August 1913. During the Balkan Wars, Serbia expands its territory by 39,500 square kilometres.
1913 Turkey Political Context
23 July: Edirne retaken by the Ottoman Army under the command of Enver Paşa.
1913 Romania Political Context
In 1913 Romania participates in the Second Balkan War and under the Treaty of Bucharest receives the south of Dobruja from Bulgaria.
1913 - 1914 Portugal Political Context
Afonso Costa is appointed Prime Minister. Republican achievements fall short of people’s expectations, fuelling the resistance of monarchists, capitalists and landlords. Inflation, public debt, trade deficit, strikes, the rise of anarcho-syndicalism, middle-class disillusion, and fear of communism will invite the establishment of the 1915 military dictatorship.
1913 Turkey Political Context
23 January: Bab-ı Ali coup d'état in the empire (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî Baskını) results in Grand Vizier Kamil Paşa being driven from power and replacement of Minister of War Nazım Paşa by İsmail Enver. Effectively ending the London Peace Conference, it marks a significant point in the Ottoman government's progress towards centralisation, giving de facto power to the triumvirate known as the Three Pashas.
1914 United Kingdom Political Context
War catches the people by surprise: British troops are fighting the Ottomans on three fronts. They are repelled at Gallipoli, pushed back in Southern Arabia, and British forces are captured in Iraq. By the end of the war these setbacks are reversed and Britain and her allies occupy Constantinople, Egypt, Iraq and the Levant.
1914 Germany Political Context
The heir apparent of Austria, Franz Ferdinand, is murdered in Sarajevo by a member of the Serbian intelligence service known as the “Black Hand”. As a consequence, the Austrian government issues an ultimatum to Serbia; Germany declares war on the Russian Empire and on France; and Great Britain declares war on the German Empire.
1914 - 1918 Serbia Political Context
The duration of World War I.
1914 Lebanon Political Context
The privileged position enjoyed by Lebanon is ended by the Ottomans in World War I: Lebanon’s semi-automous status is abolished and Mount Lebanon, an important territory at the international level, is put under martial law by the Ottomans. The Turkish commander Jamal Pasha occupies Lebanon militarily.
1914 Romania Political Context
Death of King Carol I. As he only had one daughter, who died at the age of three, Ferdinand, his fraternal nephew, had been designated heir to the Romanian throne in 1880.
1914 - 1918 France Political Context
The First World War, which left millions dead in France, leaves a lasting impact on society.
1914 Egypt Political Context
On 25 July, at the onset of World War I, ‘Abbas Hilmi II is in Constantinople where he suffers wounds to his hands and cheeks during a failed assassination attempt. On 5 November of that same year, when Britain declares war on Turkey, ‘Abbas is accused of deserting his country because he did not return home forthwith. In addition, because the British believe that he has been plotting against their rule, when the Ottoman Empire joins the central powers in the war, Britain declares Egypt an independent Sultanate under British Protectorate on 18 December, and ‘Abbas is deposed.
1914 - 1918 Germany Political Context
World War I is declared and fought.
1914 Austria Political Context
On 28 June the heir-apparent Archduke Francis Ferdinand is shot in Sarajevo by a Bosnian youth of Serb origin.
1914 Austria Political Context
Austria declares war on Serbia in July: she is supported by Russia, France and Britain. Turkey and Bulgaria enter the war on the side of the German–Austrian Alliance.
1914 Turkey Political Context
29 October: German warships, officially designated as Ottoman vessels, shell Russian Black Sea ports, an action that leads the Ottoman Empire to enter World War I.
1915 Lebanon Political Context
Turkish commander Jamal Pasha initiates a blockade of the entire eastern Mediterranean coast. Lebanon witnesses thousands of deaths from widespread famine and plague.
1915 - 1918 Italy Political Context
Italy participates in World War I on the side of the UK, France and Russia, despite widespread opposition to entering the war. On the Austrian front, Italy suffers a crushing defeat at Caporetto in 1917, but wins in 1918. In Libya, Arab revolt: Italy keeps control only of coastal towns. Casualties are 650,000 military deaths, 950,000 wounded, 600,000 prisoners of war or missing.
1915 Qatar Political Context
The Ottomans suddenly abandon Doha, leaving behind guns, shells and ammunition.
1915 Turkey Political Context
Allied forces occupy İstanbul (16 March); Greece occupies İzmir (15 May).
1916 - 1917 Saudi Arabia Political Context
The Arab Revolt begins on 10 June 1916 led by the Governor of Mecca (Makkah), Sharif Husayn ibn ‘Ali, and his sons, the amirs ‘Ali and Faisal. His forces seize the city of Riyad and force the small Ottoman garrison to seek refuge in the local fortress. Another of Husayn’s sons, Amir Abdallah, manages to surround and then take the town of Ta’if.
1916 Saudi Arabia Political Context
By the end of July 1916, the seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Rabigh are in Arab hands. This allows the British to increase their supply of arms and equipment to the Arab forces fighting in the Hijaz.
1916 - 1920 Jordan Political Context
Supported by the UK, on 10 June 1916 Husayn ibn ‘Ali, the Sharif of Mecca, declares the Great Arab Revolt against the Turks with the aim of establishing an independent Arab state under his leadership in Bilad al-Sham (Greater Syria). Aqaba in Jordan is captured in 1917, becoming the headquarters of the northern army headed by Husayn’s son Prince Faysal, who becomes King of Syria in 1920. British promises to Sharif Husayn have contradicted other secret agreements of the UK with its allies, e.g. Sykes–Picot. These mandates put an end to the Arab Kingdom of Syria under King Faysal on 24 July 1920.
1916 Austria Political Context
Death of Emperor Francis Joseph and accession of Emperor Charles I to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
1916 Austria Political Context
Romania declares war on the Central Powers: Germany, Austria and Bulgaria.
1916 United Kingdom Political Context
British interests in the Middle East are driven partly by the British Indian administration and partly by the strategic alliance with France. Mark Sykes for Britain and George Picot for France come to a diplomatic agreement to divide the Ottoman Levantine possessions for their respective countries. This conflicts with an earlier British promise of independence.
1916 - 1917 Saudi Arabia Political Context
Rebel clans allied to Sharif Husayn attack Jeddah (Jidda) and other seaports along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea.
1916 Jordan Political Context
Sykes–Picot Agreement signed by the British, French and Russian governments on 16 May 1916 concerning the division of Ottoman lands in Greater Syria between the two colonial powers, the UK and France. According to this secret treaty southern Syria (Palestine and Jordan) and Iraq are to fall under British mandate and Syria and Lebanon under the French.
1916 Lebanon Political Context
Turkish authorities publicly execute 21 Syrians and Lebanese in Damascus and Beirut, respectively, for alleged anti-Turkish activities; the place of execution in each city will be renamed Martyrs' Square.
1916 Portugal Political Context
Germany declares war on Portugal. Portugal enters World War I, complying with international commitments in Europe and defending the Portuguese strategic possessions in Africa, mainly Angola and Mozambique. The Portuguese army fought on the western European Front and in the south of Angola (border with Namibia) and the north of Mozambique (Nevala).
1916 - 1918 Romania Political Context
After two years of neutrality, Romania fights in the World War I on the side of the Triple Entente. At the end of the war, following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and of the Russian Empire, the national gatherings of Bessarabia, Transylvania, Banat and Bukovina vote for their union with the Romanian kingdom. Greater Romania is thus created.
1916 Qatar Political Context
Treaty with the UK. This recognises Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim as the ruler of Qatar, and places the sheikhdom under British maritime protection.
1917 Germany Political Context
The United States declares war on the German Empire.
1917 - 1968 Portugal Political Context
Major Sidónio Pais takes power on 5 December and is elected President on 21 April 1918. Continuous unrest leads to a military coup by General Gomes da Costa in 1926 followed by a dictatorship. António de Oliveira Salazar become Finance Minister (1928–32) and then Prime Minister until 1968. The Estado Novo dictatorship lasted for 48 years.
1917 - 1918 Saudi Arabia Political Context
In June 1917 the coastal city of Aqaba in Jordan becomes the new base for Faisal’s army, renamed the “Arab Northern Army”. Attacks on the Hijaz Railway continue, extending now as far north as southern Jordan. T. E. Lawrence, “Lawrence of Arabia” himself led reconnaissance parties into Syria and made contact with Arab nationalists in Damascus. The spectacular victory of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) at the Third Battle of Gaza (Beersheba) in October 1917, and the subsequent British advance into the Jordan Valley, gave renewed impetus to Faisal’s “railway war” further east. Meanwhile, Amir Faisal, with Lawrence as his adviser, had captured the seaport of Wejh (al-Wagh) on the Red Sea, 150 km north of Yanbu. From there, Faisal’s men spent most of 1917 attacking the Hijaz Railway. Small raiding parties blew up sections of track, destroyed bridges, water towers and even some weakly defended railway stations. The British, planning to invade Palestine, were keen for the Arab rebels to keep the 12,000 Ottoman troops tied down in Medina (Madinah).
1918 Austria Political Context
Armistice between Austro-Hungary and the Entente Powers (France, Russia and the United Kingdom).
1918 Austria Political Context
Emperor Charles I renounces his participation to the government of Germany-Austria (Deutsch Österreich). The Austrian republic is founded in Vienna.
1918 Spain Political Context
Spain's neutrality in World War I brings important economic upturn.
1918 - 1920 Saudi Arabia Political Context
Squabbling among the allies (those that had betrayed the Arab Revolution) delays the signing of the Peace Treaty with the Ottomans, which is being negotiated at Sèvres in France up until 10 August 1920. The Treaty confirmed French and British possession of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan and Iraq in the guise of League of Nations mandates. Sharif Husayn ibn ‘Ali is rewarded for his leadership of the Arab Revolt with international recognition of the Hijaz as an independent kingdom.
1918 Lebanon Political Context
British General Edmund Allenby and Faysal I, son of Sharif Husayn of Mecca, move into Palestine with British and Arab forces, thus opening the way for the occupation of Lebanon.
1918 Germany Political Context
Woodrow Wilson declares his “14 points” program in front of Congress.
1918 - 1933 Germany Political Context
The Weimar Republic.
1918 Austria Political Context
The Peace (or Treaty) of Bucharest between Romania and Austria.
1919 - 1934 Morocco Political Context
Moroccan resistance is spirited, and provokes many Berber revolts. Following the surrender of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Alkrim, who led the peasant revolts in the Rif (1919–26), France launched a campaign of “pacification” that lasted until 1934.
1919 Austria Political Context
Austria signs the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye with the Entente Powers.
1919 Germany Political Context
On signature of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany must face up to its responsibility to make reparation payments, abandon territory and let go of its colonies. The League of Nations is founded.
1919 Italy Political Context
Introduction of universal male suffrage and of an electoral system of proportional representation. The Popular Party (antecedent to the Christian Democrats) is founded. Mussolini creates the first Fascio di combattimento (embryo of the Fascist Party).
1920 Germany Political Context
The Conference of San Remo was an international meeting convened to decide which parts of its territories the Ottoman Empire would lose, to become the mandated territory under the League of Nations. For example, France received mandated territory for Syria and Lebanon (and King Faysal of Iraq goes into exile after losing Greater Syria to the French).
1920 Germany Political Context
Foundation of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP); the party’s first selection for the German Reichstag is on 6 July.
1920 - 1922 Greece Political Context
Following the “Asia Minor catastrophe”, almost 1.5 million Greek nationals arrive as refugees at Greece’s coastal regions, for example at Pontus, having been uprooted from their homes in Asia Minor (Anatolia).
1920 United Kingdom Political Context
The letter from the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, to Lord Rothschild in November 1917 offers British support to Zionist aspirations for Palestine to be a national home for Jews. This is internationally confirmed by the League of Nations handing over Palestine to Britain as a Mandate.
1920 - 1921 Jordan Political Context
The people of Transjordan, encouraged by the UK, establish local governments in Ajlun, Balqa and Karak. British advisers are assigned to help these governments.
1920 Lebanon Political Context
France takes control over Lebanese territory after the San Remo Conference.
1920 Tunisia Political Context
The first Tunisian political party is established as the Constitutional Liberal Party of Tunisia: “Le destour’’. In a pamphlet published anonymously in Paris, one of its founders, Abdelaziz al-Thalibi, specified the party’s demands.
1920 Austria Political Context
The population of Carinthia in southernmost Austria votes in favour of remaining within Austria.
1920 Turkey Political Context
23 April: Formation of Turkish National Assembly in Ankara.
1920 Turkey Political Context
10 August: Treaty of Sévres, which divides Anatolia between the Allies, Greeks, Armenians and Kurds.
1921 Jordan Political Context
By August 1921 this British policy has been changed and it is decided to establish the Emirate of Transjordan under the leadership of Husayn ibn ’Ali’s son, Prince ‘Abdallah, who will become King of Jordan in 1946.
1922 Egypt Political Context
Britain declares Egyptian independence, but retains control of Egyptian foreign policy and the basic administration of the country. On 15 March of this year, Fuad I issues a decree changing his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt.
1922 United Kingdom Political Context
Of the 32 counties of Ireland, twenty-six southern counties vote to secede from the United Kingdom to become the Irish Free State.
1922 United Kingdom Political Context
Following Ireland’s decision to secede from the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland immediately exercises its right to opt out of the new dominion and remain one of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
1923 Turkey Political Context
24 July: Treaty of Lausanne, which officially dissolves the Ottoman Empire.
1923 Turkey Political Context
30 August: Final battle in western Anatolia results in the collapse of the Greek army.
1923 Turkey Political Context
29 October: Proclamation of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk becomes the first president of Turkey.
1927 United Kingdom Political Context
The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act renames parliament to reflect the change following secession of Southern Ireland. The state is now known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1927 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Political Context
The British dismiss a former teacher of al-Taimiyyah School and a Qadi in Sharjah for sympathising publicly with the Tawhidi (Wahhabi) movement in Najd.