Timeline | Before 1800 to After 1930 | GREAT INVENTIONS OF THE 19TH CENTURY


Country | Theme | Description


On the Mahmudiya Canal, Alexandria, Egypt 
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Egypt | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

On 8 May Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt, gives the order to start digging the Mahmudiya Canal, from the River Nile to Alexandria through al-Buhayra, to transport water and as a route for cargo ships.

1818 - 1819

Different kinds of steamships 
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Italy | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

Construction of the first steamboats. The first steamboat lines in the Mediterranean: Naples shipyards build the steamboat Ferdinando I (for the line Naples–Genoa–Marseille); Genoa shipyards build the steamboat Eridano (to be used in the Adriatic Sea).


Share of the steamship Restaurador Lusitano 
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Portugal | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

14 October: The steamship Conde de Palmela arrives on the Tagus River. Built in Liverpool by Mottershead and Hays, it was commissioned by the Portuguese consul there. It is said to be the first ship to cross the Biscay, a journey of 1,000 miles, and the first steamship to be seen in Portugal.


United Arab Emirates (Sharjah)  | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

The first proper British survey of the southern and western waters of the Gulf begins at Ras Musandam.

1825 - 1827

Austria | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

A railway line opens between Budweis (Bohemia) and Linz (Upper Austria). The rolling stock was not yet steam-operated.


Jerusalem, al-Haram al-Sharif, Dome of the Rock 
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France | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

The invention of photography by Nicéphore Niépce.


Turkey | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

First steamboat in the Ottoman Empire is launched.


Greece | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

The First Governor of the new Greek nation, Ioannis Kapodistrias, orders the foundation of the postal service.


Austria | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

The Austrian Danube Steamboat Shipping Company is established.


Sketches of Aden 
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United Kingdom | Great Inventions Of The 19th Century

The development of steam power in the early 19th century also applies to marine transport. Steamships shorten distances, but they also require fuelling stations. In 1839, Britain acquires Aden as one fuelling station on the route to India. Before construction of the Suez Canal, travellers sailed to Alexandria and continued overland to Suez, picking up a steamer there.
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