Cities and Urban Spaces
Al-Asad, Mohammad, “The Mosque of Muhammad ‘Ali in Cairo” in Oleg Grabar (ed.), Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture, vol. 9, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992: 39‒55.

Aslanapa, Oktay, Turkish Art and Architecture, Ankara: Ataturk Culture Center Publications, 2004.

Barillari, Diana, Raimondo D’Aronco (Collana: Grandi opere, serie: Gli architetti), Rome and Bari: Laterza, 1995.

Behrens, Doris et al. (eds.), Islamic Art in the Nineteenth Century – Tradition, Innovation, Eclecticism, Boston and Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2006.

Gibb, H. A. R. and Harold Bowen, Islamic Society and the West: A Study of the Impact of Western Civilization on Moslem Culture in the Near East, 2 vols, London: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Grove, A. B. and R. W. Cresswell (eds), City Landscape: A Contribution to the Council of Europe’s European Campaign for Urban Renaissance, Cambridge: Elsevier, 1983.

Harris, William, Lebanon: A History, 600‒2011 (Studies in Middle Eastern History), Oxford University Press; Reprint edition, 2014.

Jayyusi, Salma K. (gen. ed.) with Renata Holod et al. (special eds), The City in the Islamic World, vol. 1 (2 vols). Handbook of Oriental Studies: “The Near and Middle East”, vol. 94/1, Boston and Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2008.

Necipoğlu, Bozdoğan and Gülru Necipoğlu (eds), special issue Muqarnas: History and Ideology: Architectural Heritage of the ‘Lands of Rum’, vol. 24, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2007: with articles of interest throughout.

Osmond, Jonathan and Ausma Cimdina, Power and Culture: Identity, Ideology, Representation, Pisa: Edizioni Plus, 2007.

Salmi, Hannu, 19th-Century Europe: A Cultural History, Cambridge, UK and Malden, USA: John Wiley & Son, 2008.

Sözen, Metin, Anatolian Cities/İstanbul: An Anatolian City, Istanbul: Turkcell Publications, 2000.

Traboulsi, Fawwaz, A History of Modern Lebanon, London: Pluto Press; 2nd ed., 2012.

Volk, Lucia, Memorials and Martyrs in Modern Lebanon (Public Cultures of the Middle East and North Africa), Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2010.

Weber, Stefan, Damascus: Ottoman Modernity and Urban Transformation (1808‒1918), Proceedings of the Danish Institute in Damascus V, 2 vols, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 2009.