TIMELINE / Before 1800 to After 1930 / TURKEY / POLITICAL CONTEXT
Date Country Theme
1823 Turkey Political Context
28 July: Treaty of Erzurum, which ends the Ottoman–Iranian war and restores the previous border.
1826 Turkey Political Context
15–17 June: The abolition and extermination of the Janissary corps (the so-called Auspicious Incident) in İstanbul by troops loyal to Sultan Mahmud II. This act provides the conditions for institutional modernisation.
1827 Turkey Political Context
20 October: A joint British, French and Russian fleet destroys the Ottoman and Egyptian navy at Navarino as the Sublime Porte did not accept the declaration of the UK, France and Russia for an autonomous Greece (in the Protocol of London, 6 July 1827).
1829 Turkey Political Context
14 September: Treaty of Adrianople (present-day Edirne). This treaty secures Greek independence and strengthens the autonomy of Wallachia, Moldavia (Romania), and Serbia.
1833 Turkey Political Context
8 April: Treaty of Kütahya with Egypt. The Ottomans recognise Syria, Palestine and Lebanon as within the sphere of the Egyptian control.
1833 Turkey Political Context
8 July: Defensive Treaty of Hünkar İskelesi with Russia establishes Russian naval superiority in the Black Sea.
1835 Turkey Political Context
Reorganisation of the bureaucracy and introduction of a new system of rank.
1838 Turkey Political Context
Founding of the Ministry of Finance and formation of Sublime Council for Judicial Ordinances. The title “grand vizier” becomes “prime minister".
1839 - 1861 Turkey Political Context
Reign of Sultan Abdülmecid.
1839 Turkey Political Context
3 November: Mustafa Reşid Paşa declares the Imperial Rescript of Gülhane (the beginning of the Tanzimat reforms), granting basic rights to Ottoman subjects and declaring a policy of state reform. These reforms included the "fair and public trial[s] of all accused regardless of religion”, the creation of a system of "separate competences, religious and civil”, and the validity of non-Muslim testimony.
1840 Turkey Political Context
After his term as governor in Samos, Kostaki Musurus Paşa, a Phanariot Greek becomes the first Ottoman envoy to independent Athens (1840–47) followed by Vienna (1848) and London (1851–55).
1841 Turkey Political Context
13 July: The Straits Convention, signed by the Ottoman Empire and the great powers, prohibits foreign warships from entering the Bosphorus or the Dardanelles.
1853 - 1856 Turkey Political Context
War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire and its allies France, UK and Piedmont-Savoy. The Crimean War is a consequence of rivalry over the Eastern Question and France’s support of Catholic claims and Russia’s support of Orthodox claims to control the holy sites in Jerusalem. Russia seeks to exploit Ottoman political weakness to gain diplomatic rights for Orthodox subjects of the Empire. Peace established by the Treaty of Paris (1856).
1854 Turkey Political Context
The Tanzimat Council appoints a City Ordering Commission (Intizam-ı Şehir Heyeti), comprising Ottoman and foreign residents, charged with developing new regulation to transform the structure of Instanbul into a municipal government. It recommends establishment of a commission to enforce urban regulations and improve the city's physical make-up, financed through a separate tax structure.
1856 Turkey Political Context
28 February: Under diplomatic pressure, the Sublime Porte is forced to declare the Imperial Rescript of Reforms (Islahat Fermanı), giving the empire admission to the Concert of Europe. The Rescript states the equality of Muslims and non-Muslims before law, the right of non-Muslims to be admitted to government and military service, and abolition of the poll tax and freedom in education for non-Muslims.
1856 Turkey Political Context
30 March: The Paris Treaty marks the end of the Crimean War (1853–56); the Ottoman Empire is admitted into the Concert of Europe.
1861 - 1876 Turkey Political Context
Reign of Sultan Abdülaziz.
1865 Turkey Political Context
Formation of Young Ottoman opposition against the bureaucratic domination of Ali Paşa and Fuad Paşa.
1867 Turkey Political Context
8 June: The Egyptian governor receives from the Sublime Porte the title of “khedive,” which provides him legislative independence.
1873 Turkey Political Context
1 April: Namık Kemal’s play Vatan Yahud Silistre arouses patriotic sentiments in İstanbul.
1876 - 1909 Turkey Political Context
Reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II.
1876 Turkey Political Context
23 December: Promulgation of the first Ottoman constitution.
1877 Turkey Political Context
19 March: Opening of the parliament.
1878 Turkey Political Context
3 March: Russo-Turco Treaty of St Stefano defines Bulgaria, which includes present-day Bulgaria, present-day Macedonia and northern Greece.
1878 Turkey Political Context
13 March: Abdülhamid II dissolves parliament.
1908 Turkey Political Context
4 July: Young Turk Revolution.
1908 Turkey Political Context
23 July: The Constitution of 1876 is restored and the Committee of the Union and Congress (CUP) takes control over the administration.
1909 Turkey Political Context
The 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası/Olayı or Hadisesi) is a rebellion on 13 April (31 March in official Rumi calendar) in Constantinople against restoration of the constitutional system. It is the culmination of the Ottoman countercoup that attempted to end the Second Constitutional Era in the empire and the newly established influence of the Committee of Union and Progress in order to reaffirm Abdülhamid II as absolute monarch.
1909 Turkey Political Context
27 April: Unseating of Sultan Abdülhamid II and accession of Sultan Mehmed V.
1913 Turkey Political Context
23 July: Edirne retaken by the Ottoman Army under the command of Enver Paşa.
1913 Turkey Political Context
23 January: Bab-ı Ali coup d'état in the empire (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî Baskını) results in Grand Vizier Kamil Paşa being driven from power and replacement of Minister of War Nazım Paşa by İsmail Enver. Effectively ending the London Peace Conference, it marks a significant point in the Ottoman government's progress towards centralisation, giving de facto power to the triumvirate known as the Three Pashas.
1914 Turkey Political Context
29 October: German warships, officially designated as Ottoman vessels, shell Russian Black Sea ports, an action that leads the Ottoman Empire to enter World War I.
1915 Turkey Political Context
Allied forces occupy İstanbul (16 March); Greece occupies İzmir (15 May).
1920 Turkey Political Context
23 April: Formation of Turkish National Assembly in Ankara.
1920 Turkey Political Context
10 August: Treaty of Sévres, which divides Anatolia between the Allies, Greeks, Armenians and Kurds.
1923 Turkey Political Context
24 July: Treaty of Lausanne, which officially dissolves the Ottoman Empire.
1923 Turkey Political Context
30 August: Final battle in western Anatolia results in the collapse of the Greek army.
1923 Turkey Political Context
29 October: Proclamation of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk becomes the first president of Turkey.