Battle for the country (1804–33)
The period between 1804 and 1815 is marked by two major uprisings in Serbia and the beginning of the Serb’s fight for liberation from Turkish occupation, and abolition of feudalism. The leader of the first Serbian uprising was Đorđe Petrović, progenitor of the Karađorđević Dynasty, while the leader of the second Serbian uprising was Miloš Obrenović.
The Vassal state (1833–78)
In 1833, Serbia gained autonomy within the Ottoman Empire, thus becoming a vassal, i.e. a tributary principality with a hereditary ruler. The first prince was Miloš Obrenović, and the capital of the Principality of Serbia was in Kragujevac. By a Hatišerif (Turkish edict), from 1833, Serbia gained freedom of religion and the possibility that Serbs, instead of Greeks up until then, could be elected Metropolitan or Patriarch in Belgrade. In 1835, Serbia gained its first Constitution. In 1842, Karađorđe’s son, Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević, came to power, which marked the beginning of the rule of the Karađorđević Dynasty. At that time, the capital was moved to Belgrade. In 1848, Serbs raised a revolution in the part of the Austrian Empire populated by Serbs, and proclaimed the autonomous region Srpsko Vojvodstvo (the Serbian Duchy). In 1859, the Obrenović Dynasty regained power. The period between 1876 and 1878 was marked by wars against Turkey.
Independent state (1878–1918)
After the Berlin Congress in 1878, Serbia obtained territorial expansion and independence. In 1881, political parties were introduced in Serbia. Also in 1881, the Principality of Serbia obtained the status of a monarchy and it became the Kingdom of Serbia, of which Milan Obrenović became its first king. In 1903, there was a military coup and the Karađorđević Dynasty returned to power. Between 1912 and 1913, Serbia participated in two Balkan Wars. After these wars, Turkish domination in the Balkans ended and Serbia expanded its territory. In 1914, the Kingdom of Serbia entered World War I and fought against Austria-Hungary, Germany and their Allies (the so-called Central powers). At the end of World War I, in 1918, Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1929).