Innovative technologies
Other innovative technologies
Various innovative technologies have empowered human society. Some of these inventions were immense and some were tiny, but all of them were important. Electricity is considered the backbone of any modern industrial society.
The 19th century had witnessed many great achievements in putting electric power, with its almost limitless potential, into service. The electric battery was invented as early as 1800. A few years later in 1821 the first electric motor was invented and successfully tested. But the greatest achievements happened towards the end of the century. In 1891 the first electric power station was built in the UK. The basis had been laid for endless practical applications of electricity including transportation, heating, lighting, communications and many others.

Some other smaller but no less significant innovations were introduced during this period such as telescopes, compasses and the fountain pen. The objects of common use are perhaps the best examples of how the innovations and the exchanges of ideas were absorbed by local historical traditions, giving life to an innovative cultural synthesis.
Patent for the invention of the fountain pen with a replaceable ink cartridge

25 May 1827

National Museum of Romanian History, Bucharest, Romania

Among the inventions of the 19th century, one of the most common objects in the world, the fountain pen with replaceable ink cartridge, was invented by the Romanian mathematician, engineer and pedagogue, Petrache Poenaru. He studied in France and obtained a patent from the French government.

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Innovative technologies
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Water: The fount of all life