Political Context | Turkey

Philliou, Christine M., Biography of an Empire. Governing Ottomans in an Age of Revolution, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011, p. 233.

Shaw, S., and Shaw, E., History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Somel, Selcuk Akşin, Historical dictionary of the Ottoman Empire, Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, 2003.