Collections | Reforms and Social Changes | Education [53 Objects, 15 Monuments]

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Madrasa Slimaniya

18th century

Tunis medina , Tunisia

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 Justification for this item

Public personalities such as ‘Ali Pasha often established a madrasa as a sign of prestige and as a public expression of their commitment to traditional Islamic teaching. Theologians and public servants were trained in madrasas like this one, devoted to the study of Islamic jurisprudence according to the Malikite madhhab (juridical school).

Madrasa Slimaniya

18th century

Tunis medina , Tunisia

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Madrasa al-Bachiya

18th–19th centuries

Tunis medina , Tunisia

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 Justification for this item

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Madrasa al-Bashiya offered traditional Islamic teaching and prepared students for advancing to the Zaytuna University nearby. In the 19th century, its role became limited, and it was transformed to provide lodgings for the students of the Zaytuna.

Madrasa al-Bachiya

18th–19th centuries

Tunis medina , Tunisia

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Board

19th century

National Museum of Anthropology

Madrid, Spain

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 Justification for this item

Memorising the Qur’an and rendering its message in writing were still important steps in the education of a 19th-century Muslim child. The child who owned this board would not only have copied the Qur’anic verses but also recited them, with the aim of successfully committing them to memory.

Board

19th century

National Museum of Anthropology

Madrid, Spain

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Zaytuna University

19th century

Institut Supérieur d’Histoire Contemporaine de la Tunisie

Tunis, Tunisia

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 Justification for this item

Traditional Islamic education emphasised memorisation of the Holy Qur’an, the study of hadith, grammar, Islamic jurisprudence and other related subjects such as philosophy and astronomy. In the 19th century, European-inspired schools were founded in the Arab and Ottoman world, coexisting with traditional institutions.

Zaytuna University

19th century

Institut Supérieur d’Histoire Contemporaine de la Tunisie

Tunis, Tunisia

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Atik Valide Mosque

19th century

Sabancı University, Sakıp Sabancı Museum

Istanbul, Turkey

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 Justification for this item

Although unexpected, a close connection exists between the first modern Turkish painters and the military academies in Istanbul. In addition to technical subjects art was taught to enable students to draw strategic maps. Some used their skills to realise their artistic potential.

Atik Valide Mosque

19th century

Sabancı University, Sakıp Sabancı Museum

Istanbul, Turkey

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The Artist Girl and Her Studio

19th century

Sabancı University, Sakıp Sabancı Museum

Istanbul, Turkey

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 Justification for this item

The artist Halil Pasha studied at the Mühendishane-i Berr-i Hümayun (Engineering School for Armed Forces). This Ottoman military school, opened in 1795, offered a curriculum including mathematics, French and even art. For some students, such as Halil Pasha, the school offered an opportunity to develop their artistic skills beyond their practical requirements.

The Artist Girl and Her Studio

19th century

Sabancı University, Sakıp Sabancı Museum

Istanbul, Turkey

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Madame X

19th century

Sabancı University, Sakıp Sabancı Museum

Istanbul, Turkey

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 Justification for this item

The artist Halil Pasha attended one of the modern military academies first founded in Ottoman Turkey towards the end of the 18th century. Military academies, the first based in Istanbul, provided advanced education aimed at future officers and senior army personnel.

Madame X

19th century

Sabancı University, Sakıp Sabancı Museum

Istanbul, Turkey

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Mahmud II, Sultan of Turkey (1784–1839)

1st half of the 19th century

Austrian National Library

Vienna, Austria

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Mahmud II, Sultan of Turkey (1784–1839)

1st half of the 19th century

Austrian National Library

Vienna, Austria

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Quranic school

20th century

Musée de l’Education

Tunis, Tunisia

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 Justification for this item

Pupils at Qur’anic schools were traditionally seated in a circle around their teacher, the muwaddib. Pupils would learn the Qur’an, Islamic principles and basic rules of the Arabic language.

Quranic school

20th century

Musée de l’Education

Tunis, Tunisia

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The Great Mosque and University of Zaytuna

7th century

Tunis medina , Tunisia

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 Justification for this item

Traditional Islamic educational institutions included the kuttab (a Qur’an school for children) and the madrasa, which provided advanced teaching. In Tunis, Fez and Cairo some madrasas were further connected to a centre of advanced knowledge, a mosque / university like the Qarawiyyin (founded by a woman, Fatima al-Fihriya), al-Azhar and the Zaytuna.

Portrait of Butrus al-Bustani

19th century

“A`lam fi Zakirat Lubnan”

Ba`abda, Lebanon

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 Justification for this item

Butrus al-Bustani was one of the leading personalities in the debate about Arab identity in the 19th century. He developed the idea of education as a way to overcome the divisions that existed in Lebanon. In 1863, he established the National School, which offered education to everyone regardless of religious creed.

Portrait of Butrus al-Bustani

19th century

“A`lam fi Zakirat Lubnan”

Ba`abda, Lebanon

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The School of the Three Doctors

1835

Beirut, Lebanon

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 Justification for this item

The School of the Three Doctors in Beirut was first established in 1835. Under secular administration, it provided education based on modern Western standards brought from Europe at the time, rather than on Lebanese standards.

Beirut Evangelical School for Girls and Boys

1835

Beirut, Lebanon

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 Justification for this item

Many Protestant missionary schools sprang up in 19th-century Lebanon. Their sites were chosen to ensure prominent visibility and an authoritative presence in the community they served. The Beirut Evangelical School for Girls and Boys had its roots in an educational institution set up by American Presbyterian missionaries active in Syria and Lebanon in the early 19th century.

Aegilops ovata L

1840

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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 Justification for this item

Botany became popular in the 19th century thanks to herbariums such as this one. Primary school teachers had their pupils construct herbariums after field trips.

Aegilops ovata L

1840

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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École Polytechnique du Bardo

1840

Le Bardo, Tunis, Tunisia

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 Justification for this item

This advanced military school offered a curriculum based on scientific and technical subjects (such as mathematics), literature, Arabic and foreign languages (French and Italian). The polytechnic school of Tunisia offered curricula related to reforms aimed at improving military education and training.

Vanadinite

c. 1839

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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 Justification for this item

Geology, mineralogy and the study of fossils advanced significantly in the 19th century. Samples such as this one were collected to be shown to museum visitors or in schools.

Vanadinite

c. 1839

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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The archbishop Tubia Aoun

Mid-19th century – late 19th century

Sagesse College

Beirut , Lebanon

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The archbishop Tubia Aoun

Mid-19th century – late 19th century

Sagesse College

Beirut , Lebanon

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Thymus ciliatus Benth. Presently: Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Boiss. & Reut.) Greuter & Burdet

1850

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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 Justification for this item

Botany became popular in the 19th century thanks to herbariums such as this one. Primary school teachers had their pupils construct herbariums after field trips.

Thymus ciliatus Benth. Presently: Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Boiss. & Reut.) Greuter & Burdet

1850

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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Lithographed Qur’an, originally written by Shukr Zadeh (d. AH 1166 / AD 1753)

Hegira 1266 / AD 1850

Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilisation / Sharjah Museums Department

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (Sharjah)

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 Justification for this item

The need to memorise the Holy Qur’an and render it in writing had given life to an accurate, scientific system of rules. Rules focusing on grammar and the correct pronunciation of words in recitation (tajwid) were essential for memorising the Qur’an. In the 19th century, the problem of how to transfer the recitation signs accurately to the medium of print arose.

Lithographed Qur’an, originally written by Shukr Zadeh (d. AH 1166 / AD 1753)

Hegira 1266 / AD 1850

Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilisation / Sharjah Museums Department

Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (Sharjah)

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Homarus hakelensis Fraas 1878 and clupeomorph fishes

Cenomanian, Upper Cretaceous (c. 95 million years)

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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 Justification for this item

Geology, mineralogy and the study of fossils advanced significantly in the 19th century. Samples such as this one were collected to be shown to museum visitors or in schools.

Homarus hakelensis Fraas 1878 and clupeomorph fishes

Cenomanian, Upper Cretaceous (c. 95 million years)

National Museum of Natural History and Science (MUHNAC) / Museums of the University of Lisbon

Lisbon, Portugal

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