Timeline | Before 1800 to After 1930 | MUSIC, LITERATURE, DANCE AND FASHION


Country | Theme | Description

1769 - 1785

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 
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Germany | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

The era of Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) in literature (i.e. the works of Goethe, Schiller, Hölderlin and Herder) is characterised by lyricism, fantasy, freedom, juvenility and idealism, which is felt most keenly in the dramatic writing of the period.


United Kingdom | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

Scotland’s most famous poet Robert Burns (b. Alloway, Scotland 1759; d. Dumfries, Scotland 1796) is set to immigrate to the West Indies when a collection of his poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect, is published in the county town of Kilmarnock in 1786. The publication launches Burns’ career.

1786 - 1832

Germany | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

The Classical era in literature (i.e. the work of Goethe, Schiller, Wieland and Herder) is characterised by a will to preserve beauty, maintain goodness in order to gain harmony, and sees nature as an entity. The centre for this movement in literature is the city of Weimar.

About 1790 - About 1850

France | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

The Romantic movement develops at the beginning of the 19th century under the influence of writers such as François-René de Chateaubriand. The movement, inspired by imagination, individualism, a taste for the outrageous, and exoticism, is marked by the poetry of Alphonse de Lamartine and Victor Hugo and then extends to the theatre with Hugo’s masterpiece Battle of Hernani, and then to literature. Hugo was the uncontested leader of this literary movement. Music and dance were both influenced by Romanticism; in choreography and in costume design (the tutu and points) the feminine was accentuated.

Around 1800

Germany | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

"Disire for the orient" arises because of the breakovers around 1800, as the Enlightenment already had changed peoples life to a more rationalistic way of thinking and the scientification of the public. Also the sumless wars, especially the Napoleonic Wars, produced nostalgia and desire for the distance, the unknown, the paradise... Authors and philosophers from the era of romanticism bothered this topics (e.g. Friedrich Schlegel) and they tried to escape into something magical- the orient seemed to be a imaginary world.

1795 - 1848

Germany | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

The era of Romanticism or Blaue Blume in literature (i.e. the works of Tieck, von Kleist, Hebel, Hoffmann, the Brothers Grimm and von Eichendorff) is characterised by the desire for far-away places, and imbued with irony, passion, nocturnal mystery and mythical creatures.

1800s - 1900s

Germany | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

The era marks the genesis of some of the world’s most popular classical compositions, for example: in 1841 Robert Schumann composes Frühlingssinfonie (Spring Symphony) and in 1859 Johannes Brahms finished the concerto Klavierkonzert Nr.1d-Moll op.15 (Piano Concerto No. 1 in D minor, Op.15). In 1889 Gustav Mahler’s 1. Sinfonie D-Dur (Symphony No. 1 in D major) is premiered; followed in 1905 by his Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children).

19th century

France | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

Dance (i.e. the waltz and quadrille), street song and cabaret (i.e. the sentimental and parody) and operetta all caught the popular imagination. Popular novels (i.e. those by Dumas, Sue, du Terrail) enjoyed huge success too, due to serialisation. The fashion world was influenced by publications of specialist journals and department stores where different fashions mark each period (i.e. the crinoline, the corset and millinery fashions).


Italy | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

Giacomo Leopardi (1798–1837), philosopher, scholar and one of the greatest Italian poets of all times, writes his first poem.

1810 - 1862

Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

One of the most prominent Macedonian poets, folklorists and educators, Dimitar Miladinov(1810–62) is born in Struga. He spends most of his life teaching in the Ohrid region. His greatest achievement is the collection of folk songs between 1854 and 1860.
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