Timeline | Before 1800 to After 1930 | REFORMS AND SOCIAL CHANGES


Country | Theme | Description

1782 - 1813

The Great Mosque and University of Zaytuna  
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Tunisia | Reforms And Social Changes

The reign of Hammuda Pasha Bey, known as the “Founder” of modern Tunisia. He made possible the renovation of the city walls of Tunis and the restoration of its fortifications, and undertook similar projects in cities such as Bizerte and Le Kef.


The History Lesson 
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Germany | Reforms And Social Changes

Establishment of Berlin’s first university, the Humboldt-Universität.


Austria | Reforms And Social Changes

A commission under the chairmanship of Franz von Zeiller drafts the General Civil Code.

1814 - 1815

Germany | Reforms And Social Changes

The Wiener Kongress (Congress of Vienna) decides on territorial realignment and the constitutional restoration of Europe.


Turkey | Reforms And Social Changes

Mahmud II leaves Topkapı Palace to live in Beşiktaş Palace.


Laënnec examining a patient at the Necker Hospital in 1816 
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France | Reforms And Social Changes

The stethoscope is invented by Dr René Laennec.


Muhammad Ali Pasha 
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Egypt | Reforms And Social Changes

Modern education in Egypt starts with the School of Engineering, which is established by Muhammad ‘Ali in the Castle during 1816, to train and prepare specialists in that area.


Spain | Reforms And Social Changes

Slave trade (trata de negros) abolished by the Spanish Parliament at Cádiz. Following the influence of the French Revolution the anti-slavery movement grew in Europe. In 1837 slavery was abolished in Spain but not in the colonies. The government later freed the slaves of Puerto Rico (1873) and Cuba (1878).


Germany | Reforms And Social Changes

Rise of the Wartburgfest, an assembly of radical students who want to implement the idea of a German National State.


Germany | Reforms And Social Changes

Arthur Schopenhauer publishes Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation is the title of the latest, 2008, English translation; the first was published in 1883).The second, expanded German edition appeared in 1944.
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