Timeline | Before 1800 to After 1930 | FRANCE

Date

Country | Theme | Description

About 1790 - About 1850

France | Fine And Applied Arts

As in literature, painting sees a similar confrontation between Neoclassicism (e.g. the work of Ingres) and Romanticism, the latter also influencing sculpture. Academicism endured throughout the 19th century (i.e. Bouguereau, Gérôme and Cabanel).

About 1790 - About 1850

France | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

The Romantic movement develops at the beginning of the 19th century under the influence of writers such as François-René de Chateaubriand. The movement, inspired by imagination, individualism, a taste for the outrageous, and exoticism, is marked by the poetry of Alphonse de Lamartine and Victor Hugo and then extends to the theatre with Hugo’s masterpiece Battle of Hernani, and then to literature. Hugo was the uncontested leader of this literary movement. Music and dance were both influenced by Romanticism; in choreography and in costume design (the tutu and points) the feminine was accentuated.

19th century

France | Fine And Applied Arts

The arts experience rapid growth with the appearance of new techniques and the emergence of photography and cinema. The female sculptor Camille Claudel was part of this artistic boom. Cultural exchanges with other countries, for example at the International Exhibitions, were extremely fruitful.

19th century

France | Music, Literature, Dance And Fashion

Dance (i.e. the waltz and quadrille), street song and cabaret (i.e. the sentimental and parody) and operetta all caught the popular imagination. Popular novels (i.e. those by Dumas, Sue, du Terrail) enjoyed huge success too, due to serialisation. The fashion world was influenced by publications of specialist journals and department stores where different fashions mark each period (i.e. the crinoline, the corset and millinery fashions).

1814

France | Political Context

Abdication of Napoleon I on 6 April sees the end of the First French Empire (1804–14).

1814 - 1815

France | Political Context

First Restoration: the return of the monarchy, referred to as the Bourbon Restoration. Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) facilitated this by accepting a return to the monarchy by means of the Charter of 1814. This Charter combined the more moderate ideas of the Revolution with certain monarchist traditions.

1815

France | Political Context

March–July, the Cent Jours (Hundred Days) between which Napoleon I returns to power and then finally abdicates after defeat at Waterloo.

1815 - 1830

France | Political Context

Second Restoration: the reign of Louis XVIII and his brother Charles X. France experiences an economic boom (i.e. the development of the railways), but discontent grows over the king’s authoritarian policies.

1815 - 1848

France | Economy And Trade

The development of transport networks: the creation of railway lines from 1832, expansion of the road network and construction of a large number of canals.

1815 - 1848

France | Economy And Trade

The pace of industrialisation picks up significantly: millions of tons of coal and iron are produced and production in the textile industry is enhanced by the Jacquard loom.
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