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Royal summer residence in the Citadel of Cascais, a village close to Lisbon
Historical Archive of Cascais Municipality, Cascais, Portugal
On 5 October 1910 the Republican regime was proclaimed at Lisbon Town Hall. Manuel de Arriaga was elected the first Republican president under the New Constitution of 1911. The regime tried to “turn the country upside down” in order to create a new Portugal with a clear separation between the state and the church. Different Republican governments placed great importance on the African colonial empire and tried to make various social and cultural changes in Portugal. But social movements, with a high number of strikes, and the political and social consequences of the tragic military participation in World War I in the Battle of the Lys brought the regime great unpopularity. By 1917 Major Sidónio Pais emerged as the sole candidate to be the president. He won the election, but political and social conflicts grew. He was assassinated by a Republican in December 1918 at Lisbon railway station. The Republican state then entered a period of crisis.