TIMELINE / Before 1800 to After 1930 / REFORMS AND SOCIAL CHANGES
 
Date Country Theme
1782 - 1813 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
The reign of Hammuda Pasha Bey, known as the “Founder” of modern Tunisia. He made possible the renovation of the city walls of Tunis and the restoration of its fortifications, and undertook similar projects in cities such as Bizerte and Le Kef.
1809 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Establishment of Berlin’s first university, the Humboldt-Universität.
1811 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
A commission under the chairmanship of Franz von Zeiller drafts the General Civil Code.
1814 - 1815 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
The Wiener Kongress (Congress of Vienna) decides on territorial realignment and the constitutional restoration of Europe.
1815 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
Mahmud II leaves Topkapı Palace to live in Beşiktaş Palace.
1816 France Reforms And Social Changes
The stethoscope is invented by Dr René Laennec.
1816 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
Modern education in Egypt starts with the School of Engineering, which is established by Muhammad ‘Ali in the Castle during 1816, to train and prepare specialists in that area.
1817 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
Slave trade (trata de negros) abolished by the Spanish Parliament at Cádiz. Following the influence of the French Revolution the anti-slavery movement grew in Europe. In 1837 slavery was abolished in Spain but not in the colonies. The government later freed the slaves of Puerto Rico (1873) and Cuba (1878).
1817 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Rise of the Wartburgfest, an assembly of radical students who want to implement the idea of a German National State.
1818 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Arthur Schopenhauer publishes Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation is the title of the latest, 2008, English translation; the first was published in 1883).The second, expanded German edition appeared in 1944.
1820 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
Muhammad ‘Ali sends the first educational “mission” of Egyptian students to Europe.
1822 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
1 October: Unavoidable recognition by King João VI of the first liberal Constitution approved by Parliament on 23 September. Inspired by the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and the French ones of 1791, 1793 and 1795, royal prerogatives and the privileges of nobles and clergy are to be limited, though this has only weak impact.
1823 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
The French army, known as “Los cien mil hijos de San Luis” (“the hundred thousand sons of St. Louis”), invades Spain to restore absolutism ending the Trienio Liberal (1820 –1823). In 1820 King Fernando VII had agreed to the Constitution, in spite of his opposition to a constitutional monarchy. The Congress of Verona in 1822 gave France a mandate to restore Fernando as absolute monarch.
1827 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
A School of Medicine is established at Abu Za‘bal and annexed to the Military Hospital there due to the efforts of Clot Bek, a French physician. A fatwa is then issued by Sheikh Hasan al-Attar, which allowed anatomizing cadavers as long as it was done in order to prevent disease.
1827 - 1831 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
A School of Veterinary Medicine emerges in Rashid in 1827, which then transfers to a building beside the School of Medicine at Abu Za‘bal in 1831. Here the veterinary hospital is able to accommodate up to 110 horses and includes a Pharmacy, a Hall of Anatomy and areas for student and staff subsistence.
1829 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
3 March: Clothing regulation: the Ottoman state mandates the fez as the common headgear for all Ottoman men.
1830 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
Fernando VII has no sons, only daughters, so abolishes under Pragmática Sanción, the Salic Law, introduced by the Spanish branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which forbids women to reign. After the death of Fernando VII in 1833, his eldest daughter becomes Queen of Spain as Isabel II.
1830 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
The French July Revolution strengthens the power of the Besitzbürgertum (the landed gentry). Revolutions in central and north Germany enforce constitutional state reforms.
1832 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
The “Hambacher Fest” demonstrates the liberal, democratic and national opposition in Germany.
1834 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
May: Religious orders are abolished and expropriated by decree; some of the assets of the crown, the Queen’s household and the absolutist aristocracy are nationalised. Monasteries are closed immediately and their buildings adapted, but women's convents remain open until the departure or death of the last nun.
1834 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Standardisation of the Abitur (equivalent to the A-Level system used elsewhere) which allows students to enter German universities.
1835 - 1837 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
For the first time, a cholera epidemic hits Italy, killing more than 140,000 (26,000 in Palermo and 19,600 in Naples). Its causes remain unknown until the 1880s. Its spread is favoured by poor sanitation in urban centres. Cholera epidemics hit poor people especially and often occasion social unrest.
1835 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
The buildings and portable heritage collected from the confiscations are sold in public auction to an emergent new aristocracy and a newly empowered upper middle class and the proceeds used to fund part of the state deficit.
1835 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
1 July: The War Academy is founded.
1835 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
Bureaucracy is reorganised and a new rank system is introduced.
1836 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
Rifa’a al-Rafi’ al-Tahtawi founds the School of Languages to educate and train professional interpreters and translators.
1836 - 1842 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
Under Septembrismo the educational system is reformed by Passos Manuel (1801–62). To improve public education, the Plano Nacional dos Lyceus Nacionais equips each district capital with a lyceu (based on the French republican idea of lycée). The curriculum includes humanities and sciences and proposes an inductive and experimental learning process.
1836 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
The slave trade is prohibited in possessions south of the Equator by a law introduced by Marquis of Sá da Bandeira (1795–1876) for philanthropic and economic reasons. The loss of Brazil, and British pressure, persuades the rulers to endorse abolition to retain in Africa the African labour needed to develop the colonies there. In 1869, King Louis I (1838–89) decrees abolition.
1837 - 1855 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Ahmad Pasha Bey is known as the “Great Reformer” of modern Tunisia. Enlightened and open-minded, he tries to modernise both State and Army.
1837 - 1840 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Foundation of the Polytechnic or military school of Bardo, responsible for the education of executives of the army and public administration. The School provides education in the art of military strategy, scientific disciplines, foreign languages, literature and religion.
1837 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
Based on the Organic Regulations adopted in 1831, the National Assembly of Wallachia includes for the first time, apart from its traditional categories (the clergy and the aristocracy), representatives of the middle classes.
1837 Greece Reforms And Social Changes
The University of Athens opens. It is the first university to be established in the eastern Mediterranean.
1837 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
The year sees the founding of Egypt’s oldest commercial science study centre, when the School of Account is established during Muhammad ‘Ali’s Era.
1839 United Kingdom Reforms And Social Changes
The British Ambassador in Constantinople, Stratford Canning, has been credited with influencing the reforms in Turkey during the 19th century, in particular the decree of 1839, initiating a programme of liberal reform in the Ottoman Empire. Some of the changes are superficial, but nonetheless highly visible, such as the adoption of Western dress and titles. Other changes are seen in the culmination of social transformations within the Empire.
1839 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
February: A plan for the modernisation of general education is approved.
1840 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
7 February: The tax system is reorganised.
1840 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
12 October: The Ministry of Post is established.
1840 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
Official recognition of the Mâli Takvim (Rumi calendar) as the second calendar system alongside the Hijra calendar.
1840 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
The first mixed courts are introduced to hear civil and criminal cases involving Muslims and non-Muslims.
1841 France Reforms And Social Changes
Law of 22 March 1841, inspired by the work of Louis-René Villermé: the Act prohibits the employment of children younger than eight years. It limits the working day to eight hours for ages 8–12 and twelve hours for ages 12–16. Night work (9 p.m.–5 a.m.) is prohibited for anyone under 13 years; and for those who are older two hours is to be paid as three.
1842 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Educational reform and restructuring of the Zaytuna Mosque through the introduction of new disciplines and incentives for teachers in Tunisia.
1842 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Child labour under 12 years of age is outlawed in Austria.
1843 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Gas lighting is installed on the streets of Vienna.
1844 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
The first Proletariat uprising, the Weber Rebellion, witnesses 3,000 weavers in Silesia protesting against inhumane working conditions and exploitation. The uprising is quashed by the Prussian military – which murders them all.
1844 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
First proletarian uprising: 3000 weavers in Silesia are protesting against the inhumane working conditions and their exploitation. They are all being killed by the Prussian military.
1846 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Ahmad Pasha Bey promulgates a decree freeing all black slaves in the country. Everyone born in Tunisia is declared free regardless of their parents’ origins.
1846 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
A gendarme organisation is formed.
1847 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Foundation of the Academy of Science in Vienna.
1847 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
September: First government secondary schools (rüşdiyye mektebi) are established.
1847 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
Publication of the first government yearbook (salnâme).
1848 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Silesian Deputy Hans Kudlich introduces legislation to abolish the enforced servitude of peasants in the Reichstag.
1848 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto.
1848 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Liberal regimes, now with seats in government, herald a series of liberal reforms in all German states. After riots in Berlin, Prussian King Frederick William IV promises liberal and national reforms.
1849 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Popular movements in Saxony, Baden and the Pfalz attempt to put into effect the Constitution of the Empire, but they are defeated by Prussian troops.
1849 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
The Teachers’ Seminary is founded in İstanbul.
1851 - 1895 Jordan Reforms And Social Changes
Between 1866 and 1871 two administrative districts are created: qada (district) of Ajlun and qada of al-Salt. Ajlun is part of Hawran mutasarrifiyyat (province), while al-Salt is part of al-Balqa mutasarrifiyyat. In 1872 a new administrative region comprising al-Salt, Karak and al-Jawf (Tafila is integrated in 1892) is formed with Ma’an as the administrative centre, subsequently replaced by Karak in 1895.
1851 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
Ottoman Academy of Sciences (Encümen-i Danış) opens.
1852 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Enactment of a code for Craft Guild regulations offers workers some protection in the Austrian monarchy.
1852 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
Ato Adicional de 1852 (Additional Act) abolishes the death penalty for political crimes, which had not been enforced since 1834. In 1867, in the reign of King Luís I, the abolition of the death penalty is extended to all kinds of crime, except for those under military jurisdiction. Only in 1911 will total abolition be proclaimed by the Republican regime.
1852 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
The steamship company Şirket-i Hayriyye is founded.
1855 - 1856 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
In Moldavia (22 December 1855) and then in Wallachia (20 February 1856) a law for the emancipation of the gypsy slaves of private owners is passed. Gypsies belonging to the church and to the state had already been liberated.
1855 Lebanon Reforms And Social Changes
A school is built by the Jesuits in Ghazir (Kisruwan district).
1855 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
9 September: Telegraphic communication is introduced within the empire.
1857 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Promulgation of the Fundamental Pact by Muhammad Pasha Bey: a “Declaration of Rights” in 11 points. The pact guarantees Tunisians and also foreigners their civil and political rights, security of persons and properties, equality before the law, etc.
1857 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
The Ley de Instrucción Pública (Law of Public Education) establishes three stages of education: primary, secondary and university. Primary school is compulsory for all children (boys and girls) providing the basis for combatting illiteracy.
1857 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
March: The Ministry of Public Education is founded.
1858 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
Through the Paris Convention signed in August 1858 by Russia, the UK, France, Piedmont, Prussia, Austria and the Ottoman Empire the privileges and ranks of the Romanian aristocracy in Moldavia and Wallachia are abolished.
1858 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
6 June: Promulgation of the Land Law regulating private property in agricultural areas.
1859 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
The Casati Law is passed in the Kingdom of Sardinia (and in 1860 extended to the rest of Italy) that defines the organisation of the educational system, from primary school to university. The system is aimed more at educating the ruling elite than the illiterate masses. Humanities are given a much higher status than scientific and technical education.
1860 - 1870 Jordan Reforms And Social Changes
By the 1860s, population density has decreased drastically. The border of the sawn cultivated land had been pushed westwards under the pressure of the nomadic tribes from the east. Several reasons are suggested for this decline, including maladministration and the taxation policies of the Ottoman Empire. Some of the regions south of Ajlun, including Amman area, and along the escarpment of the Jordan valley were almost completely abandoned. Recovery starts during the last quarter of the 19th century.
1860 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
Under the liberal educational reforms, Lyceu Nacional de Aveiro (Aveiro High School) is the first school in Portugal to occupy a building designed specifically for this function. Previously schools occupied existing buildings, often old convents. The school had been created as Colégio de Aveiro in 1848.
1860 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
October: First private newspaper to be published by Turkish journalists,Tercüman-ı Ahvâl, published by Agah Efendi and İbrahim Şinasi.
1863 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
December: the National Gathering of the United Principalities adopts the law through which the land owned by monasteries (more than a quarter of Romania’s surface) becomes property of the state.
1863 - 1879 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
Education attracts renewed interest during Isma‘il Pasha’s era. His government establishes schools and reviews students’ expenses, including their living expenses, which sees the restoration of the Diwan (or ministry) of Schools that Sa‘id had annulled. Now as the education budget increased, gradually, the government also returned to dispatching missions to Europe, mostly to France. A number of primary schools were established across the country: from Alexandria in the north to Minya in the south.
1864 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
26 August: Alexandru Ioan Cuza promulgates the first Romanian land reform, which transforms peasants into owners of the land on which they had been working on the estates of the aristocracy. Peasants are also freed from the duties they had to perform for the nobility.
1864 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
December: the law of public instruction establishes free, compulsory primary education.
1864 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
A governmental survey reveals the existence of 443 friendly societies (Società di mutuo soccorso), all located in Central and Northern Italy (Milan has 38 societies with a total of 9,923 members, Turin 13 with 14,864 members). Their number and membership grows considerably over time until the development of modern welfare.
1865 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
The new-born Italian state approves a civil code that places women in a subordinate position in the family. Boys and girls can inherit equally, but married women need “marital authorisation” to manage their property. Male and female adultery are treated differently. The “defence of honour” is accepted as attenuating circumstance in murder cases.
1865 - 1867 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
The worst of the five cholera epidemics that hit Italy during the 19th century kills more than 160,000. The most affected towns are always Naples and Palermo.
1866 - 1867 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
In 1866 the School of Irrigation and Architecture is inaugurated at al-Za‘faran Saray in ‘Abbasiyya in Cairo; it then transfers to Mustafa Fadil Saray at Darb al-Jama‘iz in 1867. The School provides a study programme of five years: a preparatory year followed by a further four years; two years respectively specialising in irrigation and architecture.
1866 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
The Civil Medical School is opened.
1867 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Around 60 per cent of men and 80 per cent of women are unable to sign their marriage certificate because they are unable to write.
1867 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
The Austrian-Hungarian compromise creates a dual-monarchy that has common ministries only for foreign affairs, defence and public finance.
1867 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
July: The first Portuguese major Civil Code is entrusted to António Luís Seabra (1798–1895), the first methodical code maker in Portugal. It is intended to meet the liberal need to regulate the juridical system as happened with French Napoleonic Code. One of its main concerns is the regulation of civil marriage. The Code will remain in force for nearly a century.
1867 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
Foundling wheels for babies left anonymously to be cared for were used between the 15th and the 19th century. From 1867 they are gradually abolished and replaced by asylums for orphans, foundlings and abandoned older children. Organised childcare is promoted from 1870 through the foundation of childcare centres and public support for families.
1868 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Gualberta Alaide Beccari (a feminist with republican ideas, much influenced by Mazzini) founds the periodical La donna, which campaigns for women’s rights. La donna’s main contributor is Anna Maria Mozzoni, who since 1865 had campaigned against “marital authorisation” and for women’s right to vote.
1868 - 1886 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
A Law School is established during Isma‘il Pasha’s era in 1868. Known then as the School of Management and Languages, the two schools separate in 1882 and remain as such until July 1886. That year, it becomes the School of Law with two departments, primary and high.
1870 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
Publication of Joao de Deus’s Cartilha Maternal, a beginner’s reading book that was to be in use for a long time. João de Deus was a follower of Maria Montessori’s pedagogical theories and founded in Portugal the “Escola Nova” movement.
1872 - 1879 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
As a consequence of the Kulturkampf the influence of the Catholic Church is limited in Germany.
1873 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
A primary school building to be built in wood attracts the attention of visitors to the Portuguese stand at the “Weltausstellung” (world exposition) in Vienna.
1874 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
Issue of the first sanitation law in the United Principalities. The sanitation system is organised hierarchically and a Superior Medical Council, with a consultative role, is created.
1874 - 1890 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
“Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing more than medicine on a large scale”, Rudolf Virchow stated in defence of public health and the building of hospitals in Berlin (i.e. Friedrichshain (1874), Moabit (1875, now closed) and Am Urban (1890); even parks and playgrounds were important to improve city life for the proletariat, Virchow continued.
1875 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
The creation of Sadiki College based on a modern concept of education: the school separates from the mosque and a distinction is made between educational structures and those of the religious life.
1875 Lebanon Reforms And Social Changes
Maronite clergy move their school from Ghazir to Beirut. Granted the title of university by the authorities, which allows it to grant academic degrees, mainly doctoral degrees in philosophy and theology, the school takes the name of Saint Joseph’s University. Faculties and institutes are founded in subsequent years including, in 1883, a Faculty of Medicine.
1875 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Edmund Count Széchényi establishes Turkey’s first fire brigade in Istanbul.
1876 Romania Reforms And Social Changes
Foundation of the Romanian Red Cross.
1876 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
Following the curtailment of academic freedom in the university, a group of professors expelled from Madrid University introduces in Spain a new education system under the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Free Institution for Education), a secular private project that would modernise all levels of the education system between 1876 and 1936. This initiative was to have an important impact on some of the most important Spanish intellectuals.
1877 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
The “Coppino Law” makes elementary schools mandatory and free of charge.
1878 - 1890 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
The anti-Socialist laws known as Sozialistengesetz prohibit socialist organisations, meetings and publications.
1878 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
The Law School is opened.
1879 - 1888 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
Pablo Iglesias founds the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE – Spanish Socialist Party) in 1879; under his leadership the socialists institute the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT – General Workers' Union) in 1888, with liberals in power. At the same time the anarchist movement creates associations that later will become trade unions.
1879 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
11 October: The labour association Voz do Operário is founded in Lisbon by Custódio Gomes and Custódio Braz Pacheco, two factory workers in the tobacco industry, to defend the rights of the workers more disrespected and threatened than ever by the tobacco industry crisis of 1879.
1879 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
4 May: Judicial reform extends the administrative authority of Ministry of Justice over mixed courts.
1880 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Anna Maria Mozzoni and Paolina Schiff (an academic) found the League for the Promotion of Women’s Interests, the first feminist organisation in Italy.
1881 France Reforms And Social Changes
The (Jules) Ferry Law establishes free, compulsory and secular primary education for all French children.
1881 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Construction of the telephone network in Vienna.
1882 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
In order to fight malaria, Parliament approves a law on drainage of swamps. Malaria plagues about one-third of Italian territory, where 10 per cent of the population lives.
1882 United Kingdom Reforms And Social Changes
With the British occupation of Egypt comes growth in European-imported ideas and fashions. Egypt becomes a significant tourist destination for wealthier Europeans. English and French –especially French – become commonly used languages.
1882 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
Inauguration of the first public kindergarten in Lisbon and Porto by followers of the Froebel method. The pupils, aged from 3 to 7 years, are divided into four age groups, each with a classroom; the plan includes a games room, toilets, offices and a refectory. The method respected the learning rhythm of the children and created didactic tools.
1882 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Robert Koch discovers the cause of tuberculosis.
1882 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
28 September: Bayezid Kütüphânesi, the first public library in İstanbul is founded.
1883 - 1889 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck initiates German social laws and the basic system for a modern social state.
1884 France Reforms And Social Changes
Unionism (“workers’ and employers professional associations”) becomes legal in France.
1884 - 1885 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Cholera epidemic causes 7,000 deaths in Naples and 2,500 in Palermo (out of a total 21,000 deaths). The government starts programmes of urban renewal in Naples and other towns (the most effective tool to prevent new epidemics).
1884 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
The goal in founding the Society for German Colonization was to acquire colonial territories overseas.
1884 - 1885 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Germany establishes protectorates in south-west Africa, Cameroon, Togo, East Africa and New Guinea.
1884 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
7 May: An industrial school for girls is opened in İstanbul.
1886 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Legislation passed prohibiting children under the age of 9 from working in factories and mines and those under the age of 12 from working at night.
1887 - 1906 Jordan Reforms And Social Changes
In 1887 a land register is established for the district of Ajlun. In the district of al-Balqa communal land is converted to private ownership. In 1906 the land register is extended to southern regions including al-Salt, Karak, Tafila and Ma’an. As a consequence many agricultural villages are founded and re-founded in the area between Amman and Karak, leading to a significant increase in agricultural production, especially cereal crops.
1887 - 1914 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Thanks to improved public health services and living conditions there has been a strong decrease in the annual number of deaths by disease since 1887 (e.g. deaths from measles have decreased by 73 percent; from diptheria by 86 per cent; from smallpox by 99 per cent).
1888 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Austria’s Legislation is passed for the mandatory insurance of workers (employees).
1888 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
First comprehensive law on health services.
1889 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
The Social Democratic Party is founded during the Hainfeld Congress.
1890 France Reforms And Social Changes
On 1 May, Labour Day is celebrated for the first time.
1890 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
For the first time, trade unions organise celebrations for May Day as the International Worker’s Day.
1890 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
The Alexandria Sporting Club is built; it is one of the oldest clubs in Egypt.
1890 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
Suffrage established for men aged 25 years and above. Although the 1812 Constitution had theoretically established “universal” suffrage for men, during most of the 19th century it had been limited to men above a certain economic level. It was not until 1931, under the Second Republic, that the suffrage became truly universal, including women.
1890s Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Sigmund Freud formulates his theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna.
1890 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Emperor Wilhelm II dismisses Bismarck; and so begins the era of the emperor’s personal regiment.
1891 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
First Chambers of Labour (territorial trade unions) founded in Milan.
1891 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
October: Domitilia de Carvalho is the first woman to study at the University of Coimbra. She is obliged to wear black, sober costumes and a discreet hat to go unnoticed among her male colleagues. A brilliant student she graduated in mathematics (1894), philosophy (1895) and medicine (1904).
1891 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Founding of the Pan-German League (Allgemeine Deutsche Verband; since 1894 the General German Association or Alldeutscher Verband) to advance an active, nationalistic German foreign policy in Europe and overseas.
1892 France Reforms And Social Changes
The Law on Health and Hygiene at work is passed.
1893 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Creation of the first analytical laboratory as part of the services that later became the Pasteur Institute, initially providing a rabies treatment service, and then offering a vaccination centre.
1896 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Creation of Khaldunia. The purpose of this institution located near the Zaytuna Mosque was to spread scientific knowledge among the Arab communities, and especially among students of Zaytuna University. Its name refers to the great Arab thinker Ibn Khaldun.
1897 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
Creation of the French civil hospital provides a surgery and two general medical services to meet the needs of the European population from the outset.
1898 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
The lost of the last overseas territories causes a big crisis. It is the moment for important writers and intellectuals such as Unamuno and Joaquin Costa, all members of what is called "Generación del ‘98” (Generation of ’98) to analyse the reasons for the crisis and look critically at Spain's past and its future.
1900 - 1930s United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Reforms And Social Changes
Wealthy pearl merchants from the Arabian Gulf establish new educational institutions on the Trucial Coast. In addition to religious subjects, the schools – housed in purpose-built structures with proper classrooms – offer an expanded curriculum. In Sharjah, al-Taimiyyah (later al-Islah) and al-Nabudah schools are established.
1900 - 1930s United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Reforms And Social Changes
Sharjah’s Taimiyyah School, which also incorporated a library, would send promising students farther afield to continue their studies. Students from outside Sharjah were offered free board and accommodation at the school.
1900s - 1915 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Reforms And Social Changes
Media from Egypt and India critical of British politics penetrates the Trucial Coast. The Cairo-based newspapers Al-Mu’ayyad and Al-Liwa have numerous subscribers on the Trucial Coast.
1900 France Reforms And Social Changes
The law on the working conditions of women and children (Millerand Law) decreases the working day to 11 hours.
1900 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Law on “state quinine” passed: in order to fight malaria, the state will produce quinine and sell it at a low price not only in the 5,000 pharmacies, but also in the 27,000 tobacconists.
1902 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Legislation passed prohibiting children under the age of 12 from working, women from working in mines and under-age women from working at night. First provisions for maternity leave (four weeks after delivery).
1904 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Theodor Herzl, founder of the Zionist movement, dies.
1904 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Law on free distribution of quinine to peasants and workers in malaria-infested areas.
1904 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
First general strike at a national level held as a protest at police violence against workers (in repeated instances, the police had opened fire against workers on strike, killing several of them).
1904 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Publication of Max Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber is known as the originator of social science.
1905 France Reforms And Social Changes
On 29 June, the working day for minors is reduced to eight hours.
1905 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
The Egyptian Olympic Athletes Club is built in Alexandria.
1906 France Reforms And Social Changes
Introduction of a compulsory weekly rest period of 24 hours (voted on 3 July).
1906 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
The Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (CGL – national confederation of trade unions) is founded. Argentina Altobelli becomes Secretary General of the Farm Workers Union (the first woman to become national union leader).
1906 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
Opening of the Lyceu Maria Pia, Lisbon, the first secondary school for girls. Though planned since 1887, female access to secondary level education faced lengthy resistance from Parliament. In 1888 the government was authorised to set up girls’ secondary schools run by district, municipal and charitable entities in Lisbon, Porto and Coimbra.
1906 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Alois Alzheimer describes a type of dementia, Alzheimer’s, for the first time.
1907 Austria Reforms And Social Changes
Introduction of the general equal franchise means that all Austrian male citizens have the right to vote for members of the parliament; prior to 1907 only males paying a minimum amount of tax were allowed a vote.
1907 Spain Reforms And Social Changes
Creation of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (JAE) (Board for Advanced Studies and Research), a public institution founded to provide scholarships for Spanish university students to attend European universities. Intended to promote contact with European culture and science, this public programme created a basis for reforms needed in education, culture and science. The JAE, ideologically related to the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Free Institution for Education), was abolished by Franco’s government in 1938 and replaced by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC – Higher Council for Scientific Research) in 1939.
1908 Tunisia Reforms And Social Changes
The School of Pasha Street, the first school for Muslim girls, opens in Tunis.
1908 France Reforms And Social Changes
Manifestation of French suffragettes for women’s right to vote.
Since 1908 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Women are admitted to study at German universities.
1909 France Reforms And Social Changes
On 7 December the law is passed guaranteeing the payment of wages at regular intervals (every 15 days for workers, every month for employees).
1910 France Reforms And Social Changes
On 28 December, the Act establishing the Labour Code is passed.
1910 - 1912 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Maternity fund for female workers established. Voluntary pension fund established.
1911 Portugal Reforms And Social Changes
28 May: Carolina Beatriz Angelo (1878–1911), a gynaecologist, succeeds in voting in the 1911 elections. Challenged at the poll because she is a woman and therefore ineligible to vote, she insists, replying that she is “a doctor, over 21 and head of a family” and therefore she fulfils all the conditions required to vote. The electoral law is revised soon after this event.
1913 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Average life expectancy, which in 1861 was 30 years, is now 47 years.
1914 France Reforms And Social Changes
The first French Doctorate in literature, Docteur en lettres, is received by a woman.
1914 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
Laying of the Foundation Stone of the University of Fuad I.
1914 Turkey Reforms And Social Changes
The School of Fine Arts for female students (İnâs Sanâyi-i Nefise Mektebi) is opened.
1918 - 1919 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
600,000 die in the Spanish influenza pandemic.
1918 Greece Reforms And Social Changes
The General Confederation of Greek Workers (GSEE) is founded.
1918 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
The so-called November Revolution results in the withdrawal of Emperor Wilhelm II; the Council of People’s Deputies (SPD and USPD members) take over government.
1919 France Reforms And Social Changes
The official working day is recognised as eight hours; the official working week is set at 48 hours.
1919 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Law 1176/1919 abolishes “marital authorisation” and allows women to practise most professions and to take up public employment. But some limitations on women working persist: they are still not allowed to become magistrates, diplomats and police officers or reach the highest grades in the civil service.
1919 - 1920 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
The “Two Red Years”: 2 million unemployed. Introduction of compulsory old-age, unemployment and disability insurances. High inflation and decrease of salaries. Intense workers’ mobilisation: strikes and occupations of land, factories and shipyards. Trade unions achieve minimum wage, 8-hour working day and recognition of factory commissions.
1919 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
The 1919 Egyptian Revolution is a milestone, not only in terms of the nationalist struggle, but also in the history of popular revolutions in general. Its overall influence, extending well beyond the politics and political parties of Egypt, exceeds the impact of the earlier ’Urabi Revolution.
1919 Germany Reforms And Social Changes
Rudolf Steiner, originator of the Waldorfpädagogik, opens the first Steiner School in Stuttgart (the basis of which is human anthropology).
1921 Italy Reforms And Social Changes
Some 12 per cent of men and 20 per cent of women are unable to sign their marriage certificate because they cannot write, a considerable improvement in literacy rates since 1867.
1923 Egypt Reforms And Social Changes
Huda Sha‘rawi becomes the first president of the Egyptian Feminist Union having returned from the International Woman Suffrage Alliance Congress in Rome.
1943 Qatar Reforms And Social Changes
Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim starts to make plans to build the first hospital, in al-Jasra Qatar, which will be opened in 1947. During 1943, Sheikh Abdullah establishes some of the first modern schools in Qatar.