Date Country Theme
1851 Romania International Exhibitions
Wallachia and Moldavia participate in the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, organised at the Crystal Palace in London. Their products are exhibited in the Ottoman pavilion.
1851 Greece International Exhibitions
Greece is represented by a small stand at the Great Exhibition in London among the Levantine states.
1851 United Kingdom International Exhibitions
At the Great Exhibition of this year are some examples of Islamic design influenced by Owen Jones, who had “discovered” Al-Andalus (Andalusian) Islamic architecture. Jones was brother-in-law to the architect J. W. Wild who designed St Mark’s Church in Alexandria.
1851 Germany International Exhibitions
The First World Fair is opened by Prince Albert in London.
1851 Portugal International Exhibitions
At “The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations“ in London, Portugal shows 1,293 products from almost all the regions.
1855 Portugal International Exhibitions
Portugal is present at “Exposition Universelle des Produits de l’Agriculture, de l’Industrie et des Beaux-Arts”, with 441 stands, exhibiting agricultural products and commodities. King Pedro V (1837–61) has a pivotal role in boosting the national presence.
1855 France International Exhibitions
The first World Fair/Expo (Exposition universelle) of industrial products takes place at the Champs-Elysées, Paris, from 15 May to 15 November. More than five million visitors attend and 25 states and their colonies are represented.
1858 Italy International Exhibitions
An industrial exhibition is held in Turin.
1861 Italy International Exhibitions
First Italian National Exhibition of Agricultural and Industrial Products and Fine Arts opens in Florence.
1862 Portugal International Exhibitions
The “International Exhibition on Industry and Art” in London distinguishes Portugal with 165 Medals of Honor and 240 mentions.
1863 Turkey International Exhibitions
Sergi-i Umumi-I Osmani (Ottoman General Exhibition), its format borrowed from Western exhibitions, is opened in İstanbul.
1865 Portugal International Exhibitions
“A Exposição Internacional”, in Porto, is the first international exhibition organised in Portugal. Designed by the English architect Thomas Dillen Jones, it follows the London model and was conceived to accommodate the Portuguese International Exhibition.
1867 Romania International Exhibitions
At the International Exposition held in Paris, the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia have their own pavilions.
1867 Romania International Exhibitions
On the occasion of the International Exposition of Paris a book with information about Romania’s agriculture, commerce, industry and resources is published in Paris by a commission coordinated by Alexandru Odobescu.
1867 United Kingdom International Exhibitions
The Paris Exhibition is the major international exhibition of the century. In the aftermath of the Crimean War (1854–56), when France, Britain and Turkey ally against Russia, there is a boost of friendship with and interest in the Ottoman Empire. The Sultan visits the Paris Exhibition and then continues to London where he was made a Knight of the Garter.
1867 Portugal International Exhibitions
At the “Exposition Universelle” in Paris, the Portugal Pavilion employs a neo-Manueline architectural style. The exoticism is a symbol of the Portuguese Empire built by the discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries.
1867 Turkey International Exhibitions
The Ottoman Empire participates in the International Exhibition in Paris. The Ottoman pavilions are designed in İstanbul by a self-taught French architect named Léon Parvillée in collaboration with the Italian architect Barborini. Sultan Abdülaziz travels to Paris at the invitation of Emperor Napoleon III to attend the opening of the World Exhibition.
1867 France International Exhibitions
The exposition known as the Universal World Exhibition of Art and Industry – the seventh World Expo/Fair and the second held in Paris after that of 1855; it ran from 1 April to 3 November 1867 on the Champ-de-Mars in Paris; 41 countries were represented.
1872 - 1891 Austria International Exhibitions
The Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museum of Fine Arts) in Vienna is built.
1873 Romania International Exhibitions
Two Romanians are members of the international jury of the Vienna International Exposition: agronomist and economist P.S. Aurelian and doctor Carol Davila.
1873 Austria International Exhibitions
Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria opens the Weltausstellung, Vienna’s World Trade Fair.
1873 Austria International Exhibitions
A copy of the decoration from the Tomb of Khnumhotep is exhibited in the Egyptian Pavilion of the World Trade Fair.
1873 Austria International Exhibitions
At the World Trade Fair in Vienna, the Austrian Museum of Applied Art purchases a pair of jugs from Tunisia for the museum.
1873 - 1878 Germany International Exhibitions
The Moorish Kiosk, built for the World Exhibition in Paris in 1878, was subsequently bought for Linderhof Palace Park by Ludwig II. The Moroccan House, which was actually built in Morocco for the International Exhibition in Vienna in 1873 and acquired by a private individual after the king’s death, was bought by the German state in 1980 and reconstructed in the Palace Park in 1998.
1873 Turkey International Exhibitions
Ottoman participates in Vienna World Exhibition with a faithful full-scale replica of the Sultan Ahmed Fountain near Hagia Sophia in İstanbul. Ottoman artisans crafted the details of the façade panels, and the most of the materials were brought from Turkey.
1876 Portugal International Exhibitions
“Centennial International Exhibition” Philadelphia, USA. Support for visitors and accommodation of the Portuguese Commissariat were the main purposes of a stylish and exotic Portugal Pavilion.
1878 Portugal International Exhibitions
At the Paris “Exposition Universelle”, the Portuguese Pavilion sets up a sophisticated, emblematic scenario, portraying the monasteries of Batalha and Jerónimos, two of the magnificent symbols of the 15th and 16th Portuguese Discoveries.
1879 Germany International Exhibitions
The Great Industrial Exposition is held at the Lehrter Bahnhof in Berlin, where one of main attractions is the first electric locomotive from Siemens & Halske.
1881 France International Exhibitions
The Paris-based International Exhibition of Electricity presents the telephone and light bulbs.
1881 Italy International Exhibitions
The first Italian National Industrial Exhibition is held in Milan.
1884 Italy International Exhibitions
The General Italian Exhibition in Turin attracts 3 million visitors.
1885 Portugal International Exhibitions
“Exposition Universelle”, Antwerp. Sponsored by the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa and Banco Nacional Ultramarino, the Portuguese Pavilion reflects a strong Islamic influence.
1888 Portugal International Exhibitions
Portuguese Industrial Exhibition in Avenida da Liberdade in Lisbon.
1888 Spain International Exhibitions
The Barcelona Universal Exhibition held in the Parc de la Ciutadella from April to December attracts exhibitors from 22 countries and more than two million visitors. The park displays monuments in the Modernismo/Modernisme and Neo-Mudéjar styles.
1889 Romania International Exhibitions
The two Romanian pavilions at the International Exposition in Paris – a restaurant and a pavilion for wine tasting – are built by architect Ion Mincu, who uses elements of traditional rustic Romanian architecture.
1889 France International Exhibitions
The Exposition universelle of 1889 in Paris is the tenth registered World Fair held from 6 May to 31 October. It commemorates the French Revolution on the occasion of its centenary. The Eiffel Tower is built for this Expo.
1889 Portugal International Exhibitions
At the Paris “Exposition Universelle” Bordalo Pinheiro’s (1846–1905) famous ceramics decorating the interior of the Portuguese Pavilion are a main attraction for the cosmopolitan visitor.
1889 Turkey International Exhibitions
Although the Ottoman government does not participate in the 1889 Paris Exhibition, the architecture of the Sultan Ahmed Fountain (from the Vienna Exhibition in 1873) is recycled in the exhibition in the Pavilion of Turkish Tobacco.
1892 Spain International Exhibitions
European and American Historical Exhibitions held in the Palacio de la Biblioteca y Museos Nacionales, Madrid, celebrating the fourth centennial of the discovery of America.
1893 Turkey International Exhibitions
At the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, the main Ottoman pavilion refers to the Sultan Ahmed Fountain, but it experiments with a different approach, being designed as an exhibition building.
1895 Italy International Exhibitions
Opening of the First International Art Exhibition of the City of Venice, known as the Venice Biennale. The exhibition – organised to bring the city out of isolation – meets with great public acclaim (224,000 visitors).
1896 Germany International Exhibitions
The Great Industrial Exposition opens at Treptower Park, south of central Berlin.
1900 Romania International Exhibitions
At the International Exposition in Paris, Romania has four pavilions, the central one designed by French architect Jean-Camille Formigé.
1900 France International Exhibitions
The World Fair in Paris as the symbol of the Belle Époque with its theme “the balance of a century”. The exhibition bequeaths to Paris several buildings including the Petit Palais and the Grand Palais.
1900 Portugal International Exhibitions
At the Paris “Exposition Universelle et Internationale”, the Portuguese pavilion is called “Portugal and Portuguese Overseas Colonies”. Inside, on the ground floor, are two main exhibitions: one on the works of João Vaz (1859–1931) painter of harbours and fishing scenes, the other on natural forest products such as cork.
1900 Italy International Exhibitions
In the 19th and 20th centuries, Italian companies participate in many international exhibition, such as the 1900 Paris World Fair.
1900 Turkey International Exhibitions
As if to compensate for its absence from the Paris 1878 and 1889 exhibitions, the Ottoman government spends a considerable sum on the pavilion for the Paris Internation Exhibition of 1900, designed by the French architect Adrien-René Dubuisson.
1902 Italy International Exhibitions
First International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Arts in Turin, featuring the best production of architecture, furniture and applied arts.
1906 Italy International Exhibitions
International Exhibition in Milan to celebrate the opening of the Simplon Tunnel. The main focus is on transport. There are 35,000 exhibitors, coming from dozens of different countries, and more than 5 million visitors.
1907 Spain International Exhibitions
Colonial Exhibition in Paris. After the success of the first international exhibition known as the Great Exhibition in London in 1851, international exhibitions become more specialised as colonial exhibitions from 1866. These exhibitions, held in European cities until 1948, depict life in the colonial territories.
1909 United Kingdom International Exhibitions
Heliopolis, Egypt, in this year, sees one of the first aviation exhibitions with an “Aviation Week”. While, initially, aviation was a sport, during World War I it became a weapon. It is only after the end of the war that aviation starts to be used as a form of “mass” transport for the wealthy.
1910 Spain International Exhibitions
“Meisterwerke muhammedanischer Kunst” (Masterpieces of Islamic Art) exhibition in Munich displaying more than 3,600 artefacts. The exhibition gives Islamic art and archaeology a new push in the academic world and is considered a turning point in the orientalist view of and romantic passion for Islamic art and culture.
1910 Germany International Exhibitions
A groundbreaking exhibition on Islamic art opens in Munich, “Ausstellung von Meisterwerken Muhammedanischer Kunst”.
1911 Italy International Exhibitions
To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Italian unification, international exhibitions are organized in Rome, Florence and Turin.
1920 Italy International Exhibitions
First Milan Fair of industrial products: 1,233 exhibitors (including 224 foreigners) and 360,000 visitors.