TIMELINE / Before 1800 to After 1930 / CITIES AND URBAN SPACES
 
Date Country Theme
1700 - 1750s Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
The newly built Palace of Schwetzingen (built on the site of a former palace that actually dates back to 1350) flourishes under the Palatine Prince Elector Karl Theodor. Today a heritage site of great cultural significance, it contains some 100 sculptures and is known for its Türkischer Garten, a garden in the Turkish style with a mosque (constructed 1779–91 and the earliest mosque-style and largest structure of its kind in any German garden), designed by French architect Nicolas de Pigage and with “Oriental” details that are for decorative purposes only.
1745 - 1747 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Prussian King Friedrick II commissions G. W. von Knobelsdorff to build Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam.
1772 - 1807 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Karl Eugen, Duke of Wittenberg, built three important palaces: one in the centre of Stuttgart, Neues Schloss (1746–1807); Schloss Solitude (1763–9); and Schloss Hohenheim (1772–93).
1796 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
The residence, Bayt al-Suhaymi is built.
1800s United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Cities And Urban Spaces
In around 1800, the Sharjah town is estimated to have around 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants.
1800 - 1814 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
In the Napoleonic age, monumental architecture is intended to celebrate the glory of the new regime. An example of that is the Foro Bonaparte, in the area around the Sforza’s Castle in Milan (a project by Giovanni Antonio Antolini).
Beginning of 19th century Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Garden cities – planned urbanisation to overcome the housing crises in growing cities –come into vogue. Examples include Margarethenhöhe in Essen, Dresden-Hellerau and Dresden-Briesnitz.
1800 - 1900 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
Some features of 19th-century architecture in Lebanon have their origins in the era of Fakhr al-Din II. He had built khans and caravanserais to encourage trade and he introduced the red-tile technique, which became a typical element in Lebanese architecture. The mashrabiyya (wooden screens), used in buildings of Fakhr al-Din’s era, are still used in 19th-century Lebanese architecture.
1807 - 1837 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
In Milan, Luigi Cagnola completes the construction of the Arch of Peace, started during the Napoleonic age and inspired by the Arc du Carrousel in Paris. The stunning architectures of the Napoleonic age use arches, obelisks and allegorical groups of Roman and French classical inspiration.
1808 - 1814 Tunisia Cities And Urban Spaces
The construction of the Yussef Sahib al-Taba‘a Mosque is the last great architectural ensemble overseen by the Husaynid Regency of Tunis. The mosque is the main unit of this integrated complex, known as a kulliye, which also includes a mosque and two madrasas (schools), two mausoleums, a funduq (inn), hammam (steamroom), sabil (public fountain) and a suq (market).
1808 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha builds Shubra Palace on the site of a former kiosk where walis went for recreation during the Ottoman era.
1814 Tunisia Cities And Urban Spaces
The reign of Hammuda Pasha Bey, known as the “Founder” of modern Tunisia, comes to an end.
1814 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Cities And Urban Spaces
Sharjah becomes the main seat of the ruling Sheikh, Sultan bin Saqr al-Qasimi I, and the centre of the government of the Sharjah Emirate.
1815 - 1920s Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Up until 1815 Hamburg had been a free city, which began to be developed under the German Confederation. A huge fire in 1842 then called for a huge rebuilding programme that continues up until 1897, with development of the customs examination area in 1888, and the Speicherstadt, the world’s largest warehouse district. In 1892, cholera caused some 8,000 deaths, but by 1900 the population is 1 million. A social housing scheme is implemented in the 1920s.
1820 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Cities And Urban Spaces
British Royal Navy surveyors visit Sharjah.
1821 - 1822 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Giuseppe Valadier’s neoclassical project for the area next to the Rome northern gate is completed: it encompasses Piazza del Popolo and a new scenographic access to the Pincio hill.
1822 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Cities And Urban Spaces
A survey of Sharjah records it as having fortified towers and walls, a large mosque, as well as single- and two-storey houses.
1824 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
During the reign of Prince Grigore IV Ghica, the major streets in Bucharest, which used to be covered with wooden planks, are covered with cobblestones.
1824 - 1829 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Rosenstein Palace is built by Giovanni Salucci under Wilhelm I; it has been a public museum since 1954.
1826 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Cities And Urban Spaces
Sharjah is recorded as having 175 stone buildings and 2,000 areesh (palm-frond) houses.
1828 - 1848 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
The Mosque of Muhammad ‘Ali is built between 1828 and 1848. Perched on the summit of the Citadel, the Ottoman mosque with its animated silhouette and twin minarets, the largest to be built in the first half of the 19th century, is the most visible mosque in Cairo.
1830 - 1880 Tunisia Cities And Urban Spaces
Tunis is a cosmopolitan city. According to M. J. Henry Dunant, when visiting the regency in 1856, he noted that: “more than 15 Christian nations are represented by a number of their nationals in Tunis”.
1830s Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
Eduard Schaubert and Stamatios Kleanthis pioneer the urban redevelopment of Athens, initially under Ioannis Kapodistrias. They produce topographical plans of Athens and, in doing so, lay the foundations for the new capital.
1830 - 1871 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Due to the rise of industrialisation in Germany, in 1862, the Hobrecht-Plan aims to modernise Berlin over the following 50 years.
1831 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Cities And Urban Spaces
The population of Sharjah rises to 13,900 inhabitants, its urban features are now much more substantial in terms of its domestic, commercial and official architecture.
1833 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
Copou, one of the first public gardens in Romania, is laid out in Iaşi, Moldavia, at the initiative of Prince Mihail Sturdza.
1834 Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
Athens becomes the capital of the newly established state.
1834 Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
In October, King Otto issues a decree for reconstruction of the city of Sparta. Over the ancient city Bavarian city-planners, headed by Fr. Staufert, design a city for 100,000 inhabitants based on the Ippodamia system, with wide roads and many squares.
1835 - 1838 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
The first section of railway is established between Nürnberg and Fürth (6 km); the building of the long-haul between Leipzig and Dresden is finished in 1838.
1836 - 1862 Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
The Royal Palace (today’s Parliament) is erected under the auspices of the director of the Munich Academy of Arts and official architect of the Bavarian court, Friedrich von Gaertner.
1837 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
The first blueprints for a new Istanbul are prepared by Helmuth von Moltke, a general in the Ottoman army working for its modernisation, under direct orders from Mustafa Reşid Paşa.
1839 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
The Jesuits come to Beirut and build a modest school.
1840 - 1890 United Kingdom Cities And Urban Spaces
This half century is a period of great rebuilding and redesign in London and other British cities – of churches, public buildings, and housing with slum clearance. The building boom extends to the cities of the British Empire and especially in India. British architects study Islamic architecture and its influence can be seen in many British buildings. British architects also practise in the major Levantine commercial cities, such as the Crimean Memorial Church in Constantinople (G. E. Street) and St Mark’s Church in Alexandria (J. W. Wild).
1840 - 1880 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Development of a railway network across the whole of Germany, much of which still exists today. The most important stations are developed during this period, including: Berlin Ostbahnhof (1842), Nürnberg Central Station (1844), Duisburg Central Station (1846) and Munich Central Station (1849).
Around 1850 - Around 1900 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Development of the urban district known as the “Ruhrpott” from where, by around 1850, many factories operated (known particularly for coal mining). Due to rapid urbanisation and lack of housing several important cities expanded rapidly at this time, including Duisburg and Dortmund. The railway network reached the “Ruhrpott” in 1900.
1843 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Muhammad Sharif Pasha builds the Sharif Pasha Palace situated on Kirdassi Street, off Hasan al-Akbar Street, in Cairo. The Pasha held a number of important posts during the reigns of Muhammad ‘Ali and his successors.
1846 - 1891 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
National Theatre Dona Maria II opens its doors. Inspired by neoclassical style it was built (1842–46) over the ruins of the former Inquisition headquarters, the Palace of Estaús. The Portuguese royal family as well as the aristocracy and bourgeoisie attend theatre performances.
1848 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Ebniye Nizamnamesi (Regulation for Buildings) issued.
1852 - 1870 France Cities And Urban Spaces
Georges Haussmann’s works in Paris cover all areas of city planning: streets and boulevards, reconstruction of buildings, parks and street furniture, drainage networks and water supply facilities, equipment and monuments.
1853 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
Antun Bey Najjar, a merchant who made his fortune in Constantinople, builds Khan Antun Bey in 1853. It becomes a great business centre and the building is used by many institutions such as Beirut’s foreign consulates, the Ottoman administration, postal services, merchants’ offices and Beirut’s first bank, Imperial Ottoman.
1854 - 1870 France Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of workers’ housing includes the utopian city of Familistère de Guise in Aisne (also called the “Social Palace”), set up by Jean-Baptiste André Godin between 1859 and 1870.
1855 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
A school is built by the Jesuits in Ghazir (Kisruwan district).
1856 - 1860 Spain Cities And Urban Spaces
Ildefonso Cerdá designs the "extension" of Barcelona in 1859. The orthogonal design of the streets creates a new neighbourhood: El Ensanche/L’Eixample. The development of wide streets such as Diagonal or Paseo de Gracia allows a new construction style, Modernismo/Modernisme, with buildings by Antonio Gaudí and Puig i Cadafalch.
1856 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
İstimlak Nizamnamesi (Regulation for Expropriation) issued.
1856 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Fire in Aksaray district, İstanbul, destroys more than 650 buildings and is a major turning point in the history of İstanbul’s urban form. Italian architect Luigi Storari is appointed to carry out the re-building of the area, which is to conform to the new pattern: hence it is to be regular with straight and wide streets.
1858 Tunisia Cities And Urban Spaces
Under the reign of Muhammad Pasha Bey a major reform is carried out: the capital, Tunis, is established as a municipal town and a city council is elected. Further municipal towns were created in other parts of the country: Sfax, Sousse and Kairouan among others.
1858 - 1910 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
Vienna’s newly constructed Ringstrasse covers an area of approximately 2,400,000m2 (240 hectares).
1858 Spain Cities And Urban Spaces
Opening of the Isabel II channel, the water system of Madrid diverting water from the river Lozoya to the new fountain in San Bernardo street in the centre of Madrid.
1858 - 1870 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Planning project for Galata and Karaköy in İstanbul. They are important centres for international trade.
1859 - 1885 Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of the so-called classical trilogy – namely the Academy of Athens, the National Library of Greece and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens – which is designed by the brothers Theophilus and Christian Hansen.
1859 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Sokaklara Dair Nizamname (Regulation for Streets) issued.
1860 - 1900 Tunisia Cities And Urban Spaces
Following development of the Port of La Goulette, new districts relating to trade and industrial activities are born. The neighbourhood is given the name of “Little Sicily”, which is suggestive of its role as host to a poor immigrant population mainly from southern Italy.
1860 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
The unification of Italy leads to urban expansion outside the old city walls, which have lost their defensive value. Medieval urban buildings are often demolished in order to build monumental architecture.
1861 - 1921 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Urban growth in Italy: Naples is the biggest city (1861: 447,000; 1921: 772,000), but population growth is higher in Rome, the “political capital city” (1871: 244,000; 1921: 692,000) and in Milan, the “industrial capital city” (1861: 96,000; 1921: 719,000). (Rounded to nearest 1,000.)
1863 - 1889 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of the 167.5 m high Mole Antonelliana in Turin, initially conceived as a synagogue. It soon becomes the city’s landmark building.
1863 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
On 18 October, under the rule of Khedive Isma‘il, the Egyptian Museum opens in the Caireen district of Bulaq under the management of French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette, known as Mariette Pasha.
1864 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
14 April: the Commune Law is adopted by which cities and towns become urban communes, led by a mayor and a council. All urban communes must have a fire department and a hospital.
1864 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
19 August: establishment of Bucharest’s city hall. Bucharest had been the United Principalities’ capital since 1861.
1864 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Imperial decree orders that all civil servants have to light one or two street gas lamps in front of their houses both in summer and winter.
1865 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
1 May: Santa Apolónia Central Railway Station of Lisbon, connecting to the East and North Railways, is inaugurated. It is sited in the north bank of the Tagus River, close to Praça do Comércio in Lisbon. It is an example of 19th-century iron buildings.
1865 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
Sultan ‘Abd al-‘Aziz orders the building of a hospital known as the military infirmary. It will later be turned into a courthouse after the French Mandate and then become the Insitute of Fine Arts of the Lebanese University.
1868 - 1874 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of the Abdeen Palace in Cairo begins in 1868 and inauguration takes place some six years later.
1868 - 1886 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Ludwig II (r. 1864–86) had several palaces built during his reign. The most famous among these are Neuschwanenstein (1868–92, still in construction when Ludwig died), Neues Schloss Herrenchiemsee (1878–86, built along the lines of Versailles, but never completed), and Linderhof (1869–85), the only palace the king lived to see completed.
1869 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
Opening of the new State Opera House in Vienna.
1869 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Khedive Isma‘il commissions a French company to construct the first bridge across the River Nile in Cairo, the Qasr al-Nil Bridge.
1869 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
The Opera House is inaugurated in November 1869 with Verdi’s Opera Rigoletto. In attendance, seated in the Royal loge, are Khedive Isma‘il Pasha, Empress Eugénie and her husband Napoleon III, and François Joseph I of Austria.
1870 France Cities And Urban Spaces
From 1870, the suburbs appear around major French cities such as Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux and Marseille.
1870 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Renewal and urban modernisation of Rome starts with the opening of a long road linking Porta Pia (where the Italian army broke into the city in 1870) to the Quirinale Palace, residence of the King (formerly a papal palace). The headquarters of some ministries are located along this road.
1870 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Fire in Beyoğlu (İstanbul) destroys about 3,000 houses; 80 people are killed. After that incident using brick and stone to build houses becomes obligatory.
1871 - 1877 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Jezira Bridge is constructed in 1871 and opens to traffic in 1877. The intention is to link the districts of Dokki and Bulaq al-Dakrur with Zamalek. Construction requires redirection of the Nile bed.
1871 - 1896 Spain Cities And Urban Spaces
By the end of the 19th century tram lines have increased in cities. Madrid has horse-drawn trams from 1871 and Barcelona from 1872 but the first city with an electric tram is Bilbao in 1896, followed by Cartagena.
1871 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
Berlin becomes the imperial capital.
1871 - 1910 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
The second Industrial Revolution sees massive immigration; the population rises from 41 to 65 million, and from only eight cities with no more than 100,000 inhabitants, more than 48 cities are formed.
1871 - 1914 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
The process of urbanisation begins: in 1907 Berlin had more than 2 million citizens of which around 40% are locals, 20% German immigrants and 40% foreign immigrants.
1872 - 1874 Tunisia Cities And Urban Spaces
The city of Tunis benefits from the first installation of public street lighting. An English company builds a gasometer and installs the pipelines necessary to supply gas for street lighting of the city’s main arteries.
1873 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of a new water-supply pipeline from the Alps to Vienna.
1874 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of the residential blocks of Akaretler (Istanbul) by the architect Agob Balian. They are built for the elite staff of the nearby Dolmabahçe Palace.
Late 19th century Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
Mavrokordatos Mansion is built in the Kipseli neighbourhood in Athens for the well-known political family of that name.
Late 19th century Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of the Greek Orthodox Church of Evangelismos in Brăila, Romania.
1875 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
Maronite clergy move their school from Ghazir to Beirut. Granted the title of university by the authorities, which allows it to grant academic degrees, mainly doctoral degrees in philosophy and theology, the school takes the name of Saint Joseph’s University. Faculties and institutes are founded in subsequent years.
1876 - 1881 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
The "Urban General Improvements Plan for Lisbon" (Commission of 1876–81) designs wide, straight roads – modern boulevards – to define orthogonal blocks for buildings, with roundabouts, pavements, vegetation and street furniture namely at Avenida 24 de Julho, Avenida da Liberdade and covering the area from Picoas to Campo Grande.
1876 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
By 1876 Beirut has increased 10–12 times its size in 1841. Eleven districts are added and Danish acting Consul Julius Loyvted draws the new map and presents it to Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II. Banks, quarantine office, quays, railway office, telegraph, post office, police stations and offices for foreign agencies are all established in the existing city centre.
1876 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
The construction of Dolmabahçe Mosque by Agob Balian.
1877 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
Ponte Dona Maria Pia, a bridge over the Douro River, completes the Lisbon–Porto railway line. Designed by Gustave Eiffel and Théophile Seyrig, the bridge keeps the beauty of the Douro unchanged. It was built where the banks are closer. It was named after the Queen.
1878 - 1921 Jordan Cities And Urban Spaces
Centrally positioned in the northern part of Jordan at the edge of the cultivated lands and the desert, thus having access to both ecological zones and demographies, Amman is the perfect choice for the capital of the Emirate of Transjordan. It develops rapidly from small village to relatively big town within a few decades. Being one of the important stations on the Hijaz Railway adds to its geopolitical and economic significance.
1878 - 1881 Greece Cities And Urban Spaces
The Iliou Melathron is designed by architect Ernst Ziller as the residence of the archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann and his family.
1878 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
Opening of Lisbon Botanical Garden. During the 19th century Portugal aspires to reach the level of economic and social “progress” of other European countries in, for example, education and teaching. Natural History Museum and the Lisbon Botanical Garden were important institutions for scientific research and the exchange and circulation of ideas and natural knowledge.
1878 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
28 September: The first electric lighting on the terrace of the Citadel of Cascais to celebrate the 15th birthday of future King Carlos I (ruling from 1889). A ball commemorates the electric lighting premiere. The daily press celebrate the occasion, saying that the electric light turned the entrance and the royal residence balconies into “a clear and luminous day’’.
1880 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
3 October: Barbadinhos steam pumping station is inaugurated. The water from the Alviela Canal starts to be pumped thus increasing the water supply to Lisbon.
1881 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
Designs for a telephone network in Vienna.
1882 - 1888 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
Swiss engineers Carl Culmann and Arnold Burkly-Ziegler are contracted to develop a water supply network for Bucharest.
1882 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
In Bucharest the first electric generators are installed and used to illuminate some important buildings of the city (the Royal Palace, the Cotroceni Palace, the National Theatre), Victory Avenue and Cişmigiu Park.
1882 - 1884 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
On the occasion of the 1884 General Exhibition of Turin, construction of the Rocca (castle) and the Borgo Medievale (medieval village) in Parco del Valentino (Valentino Park) in order to promote appreciation for 15th-century Piedmont architecture. In 1884, the Municipality of Turin buys part of this area, where it will later locate the Civic Museums.
1882 Spain Cities And Urban Spaces
Madrid has two "extensions": the first had been designed by the Marquis of Salamanca in 1860; the second, in 1882, is a modern design by Arturo Soria known as “Ciudad Lineal” (linear city), a plan for an elongated urban formation. The city will consist of a series of functionally specialised parallel sectors.
1883 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
A credit-fuelled “construction fever” explodes in Rome and in the other urban centres.
1883 - 1926 Spain Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of Antonio Gaudí’s buildings related to Ildefonso Cerdá's Plan and the new urban space in Barcelona. Gaudí is the most important of the architects in the Catalan Modernismo/Modernisme movement, which relates to European movements such as Jungendstil and Art Nouveau. Inspired by nature, the style is mostly developed in architecture but also found in painting and decorative arts.
1884 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
12 October: Timişoara is the first European city where electric street lighting is introduced not only on some streets, but also across the entire city. An electric plant is built and 731 incandescent lamps with coal filament installed, covering an area of 10 km2.
1885 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
After the 1884–85 cholera epidemic hits Naples (the fourth cholera epidemic hitting the city since 1835), the government starts a redevelopment plan to clear Naples of slums and improve its sewerage and water systems. Similar renewal plans will be extended to other cities.
1885 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
Part of the Old Serail in Zahlé is used to house the local prison, with severe overcrowding. The prison was moved to a better location in 2009. Still known as the Old Serail, the restored monument today serves as the Town Hall and houses the offices of the municipality and a museum illustrating Zahlé’s history.
1886 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
Completion of the construction of Avenida da Liberdade in Lisbon. Engineer Frederico Ressano Garcia (1847–1911) followed Joseph Pezarat’s plans. Inspired by Haussmann’s Parisian boulevards, Avenida da Liberdade is testimony to the economic boom of the Fontismo period, with new residential areas built for investment and profit.
1887 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
El-Hakaneia Palace on Manshieh Square in Alexandria is designed by Alfonso Maniscalco in the Beaux-Arts tradition. Constructed as the seat of the “Mixed Tribunals” the building is still used as a courthouse today.
1888 - 1889 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of Piazza Esedra (now Piazza della Repubblica) in Rome, designed by Gaetano Koch. The newly built palaces with porticos around the square are opposite the Terme di Diocleziano (Baths of Diocletian) and connect the area of Termini railway station to via Nazionale, providing an attractive entrance to the city.
1888 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
The Burgtheater (National Theatre) moves from its former residence at the Hofburg (Imperial Castle) to purpose-built premises at the Ringstrasse.
1889 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
The Deutsche Volkstheater (German People’s Theatre) opens in Vienna.
1890 - 1920 Tunisia Cities And Urban Spaces
The 20th century is undoubtedly one of urbanisation. Outside the Arab medina a new city develops to host the many Europeans who have arrived to promote development of the colonial economy.
1890 - 1892 Romania Cities And Urban Spaces
In Bucharest a fire tower is built from the plans of the chief architect of the city, George Mandrea. It is both a watchtower, used by firemen to keep the city under observation to rapidly intervene in case of a fire, and a reservoir for water distribution in the eastern part of Bucharest.
1890 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
The railway station of Rossio (Lisbon) designed by the Portuguese architect José Luís Monteiro, begun in 1886 and inaugurated on 23 November of 1890. Located in the historical centre, the Rossio station follows the neo-Manueline architectural style and is an important building of the 19th-century late Romantic style.
1890 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
Khan Antun Bey Square evolves after the construction of the great Ottoman jetty and quays from 1890 that changes the design of the urban area.
1892 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Muntazah Palace is constructed for Khedive ‘Abbas, which he uses as both a hunting lodge and residence for his companion.
1892 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
18 August: Praça de Touros do Campo Pequeno (Campo Pequeno Bullring) opens its doors with a gala show. Built in an area assigned to the Casa Pia (educational establishment for children in need) by the city of Lisbon in 1889 the bullring was designed by the architect António José Dias da Silva (1848–1912) and inspired by Madrid's bullring.
1893 - 1895 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (today Piazza della Repubblica) in Florence, after clearing the area of the Ancient Market.
1897 - 1909 United Kingdom Cities And Urban Spaces
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (b. Glasgow, Scotland 1868; d. London, England 1928), artist, designer and architect, is perhaps best known for the Charles Rennie Mackintosh building at Glasgow School of Art, which was built in two stages (1897–9 and 1907–9) due to lack of funding. Designed in the Art and Crafts style, and owing much to Scotland’s baronial tradition, Mackintosh eschewed the architectural styles of Greece and Rome in his design. Achieving the acclaim he felt he deserved in Europe, Mackintosh’s originality was never fully appreciated in the United Kingdom, except by a few loyal supporters and patrons, during his lifetime.
1897 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
On 9 January 1897 and in celebration of the 10th anniversary of the Ottoman Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II’s coronation, a clock tower is built near the Grand Serail, Beirut, to make up for the absence of a public clock indicating mandatory Muslim prayer times especially as many foreign institutions had built Western-style clock towers.
1899 - 1904 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of the new Synagogue in Rome (architects: Vincenzo Costa and Osvaldo Armanni), an imposing building of eclectic style, with decorative elements inspired by Assyro-Babylonian architecture.
1899 - 1920s Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
Construction of some remarkable Liberty-style buildings, such as the Villino Florio in Palermo and the new building of Palazzo Montecitorio (seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies in Rome), both by Ernesto Basile, some pavilions for the 1902 national exhibition in Turin, and the small Coppedè neighbourhood in Rome. Overall, however, Liberty style leaves a smaller mark on Italian cities than eclecticism.
1899 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Prince Muhammad ‘Ali Tawfiq is responsible for opening the Al-Manyal Palace Museum in 1899, which is set in a large garden of thirty feddans (approx 31 acres).
1901 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
Otto Wagner designs and overseas construction of the Viennese metro, the Wiener Stadtbahn.
1901 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
31 August: Inauguration of the first electric tram route in Lisbon, connecting Cais do Sodré to Ribamar (Algés). The more efficient electric tramway, with tracks, overhead power lines and the construction of Santos Central Power Station, replaces the popular “Americanos” horse-drawn trams of Lisbon.
1901 Turkey Cities And Urban Spaces
Izmir Clock Tower is built to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Abdülhamid II’s accession to the throne. It is designed by Levantine French architect Raymond Charles Père.
1902 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
Opening of Santa Justa Lift, an iconic example of iron architecture. Planned since 1874, it was designed to bridge the 25 metre gap in height between Ouro and Carmo streets, thus making pedestrian traffic between Lisbon’s hills easier. The inauguration of the gangway by King Carlos I is held on 10 July.
1903 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
The House of Arab Antiquities opens on 28 December 1903, located on Bab al-Khalq Square which is famous for its Islamic infrastructure: the mosques of Ahmad ibn Tulun and Muhammad ‘Ali, and the Citadel of Saladin. The Museum is only the second concrete-iron building to be constructed after the Egyptian Museum.
1904 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
The Egyptian Geological Museum (EGM) is established and opened to the public as part of the Egyptian Geological Survey (EGS), founded earlier in 1896. The Museum supports the theses that Egyptians are pioneers in extraction and utilization of metals and stones, the essential basics of civilization, and that they were the first to discover gold and copper and mine them from the Eastern Desert and Sinai.
1904 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
Avenida Ressano Garcia, a main residential area and development axis opens in the north of Lisbon as part of the “Avenidas Novas” plan. Part of a later phase of the Lisbon Improvements Plan, led by Frederico Ressano Garcia, it also included sanitation improvement. Today the street is known as Avenida da República.
1906 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
In celebration of the 30th year of ‘Abd al-Hamid II as sultan of the Ottoman Empire, the Tell Clock Tower is erected in Tripoli as a gift to the city. It is similar to the Jaffa Clock Tower and many others throughout the Empire.
1906 Lebanon Cities And Urban Spaces
Hotel Kadri is built in Zahlé. In 1914 it is taken over by the Turkish army and used as a military headquarters.
1907 - 1920 Portugal Cities And Urban Spaces
In Aveiro, art nouveau buildings are associated with a local middle class looking for cultural and social status. Some are “brasileiros”, coming back from Brazil to their homeland, and investors in trade and industrial businesses, thus contributing to local economic development. The art nouveau of Aveiro is inspired by French patterns.
1908 United Arab Emirates (Sharjah) Cities And Urban Spaces
The population of Sharjah has reached around 19,000 inhabitants. The suq boasts some 200 shops, with a multicultural mix of local and resident merchants, pearl traders, and trade-related professionals originating from as far away as India and East Africa. The Emirate of Sharjah as a whole is estimated as having around 45,500 inhabitants at this time.
1910 Austria Cities And Urban Spaces
When Adolf Loos designs the Michaelaplatz in Vienna for the textile company Goldman & Salatsch, unusually, there is no ornamentation around the windows.
1911 Italy Cities And Urban Spaces
In Rome, inauguration of the neoclassical monument to King Victor Emanuel II (built after clearing the Capitol Hill area of medieval buildings) and of the new building for the National Gallery of Modern Art, built for the Fine Arts International Exhibitions, combining elements of different styles (neoclassical, neo-Renaissance, Liberty).
1912 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Bulaq Abu-l-‘Ala Bridge is inaugurated during the reign of Khedive ‘Abbas Hilmi II. It is seen as an architectural marvel that will link Cairo with Zamalek Island.
1913 - 1917 Germany Cities And Urban Spaces
The last palace (Cicilienhof) of the House of Hohenzollern (a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors) was built under Wilhelm II. The palace hosted the Conference of Potsdam in 1945.
1917 - 1920 France Cities And Urban Spaces
The planning and development of several cities in Morocco (Casablanca, Fez, Marrakech, Meknes and Rabat) are carried out by French architects.
1919 Spain Cities And Urban Spaces
The beginning of the Madrid subway system, the first in Spain, heralding a major advance in public transport in cities.
1920 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
Tal‘at Harb Pasha founds Banque Misr.
1934 - 1940 Egypt Cities And Urban Spaces
The Post Museum is established in February 1934; it opens to the public in January 1940.
1938 Qatar Cities And Urban Spaces
Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim builds the famous Al Zubarah Fort, in the town of Al Zubarah to protect the northern border.