TIMELINE / Before 1800 to After 1930 / AUSTRIA / POLITICAL CONTEXT
Date Country Theme
1797 Austria Political Context
Austria and France conclude the Treaty of Campo Formio on 17 October. Austria then cedes to Belgium and Lombardy. To compensate, it gains the eastern part of the Venetian Republic up to the Adige, including Venice, Istria and Dalmatia.
1814 - 1815 Austria Political Context
The Great Peace Congress is held in Vienna from 18 September 1814 to 9 June 1815. Clemens Wenzel Duke of Metternich organises the Austrian predominance in Italy. Austria exchanges the Austrian Netherlands for the territory of the Venetian Republic and creates the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.
1840 - 1841 Austria Political Context
Austria cooperates in a settlement to the Turkish–Egyptian crisis of 1840, sending intervention forces to conquer the Ottoman fortresses of Saida (Sidon) and St Jean d’Acre, and concluding with the Dardanelles Treaty signed at the London Straits Convention of 1841.
1848 - 1849 Austria Political Context
Revolution in Austria-Hungary and northern Italy.
1859 Austria Political Context
Defeat of the Austrians by a French and Sardinian Army at the Battle of Solferino on 24 June sees terrible losses on both sides.
1859 Austria Political Context
At the Peace of Zürich (10 November) Austria cedes Lombardy, but not Venetia, to Napoleon III; in turn, Napoleon hands the province over to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
1866 Austria Political Context
Following defeat at the Battle of Königgrätz (3 October), at the Peace of Vienna, Austria is forced to cede the Venetian province to Italy.
1878 Austria Political Context
In June the signatories at the Congress of Berlin grant Austria the right to occupy and fully administer Bosnia and Herzegovina for an undetermined period.
1881 Austria Political Context
The alliance of the three Emperors of Germany, Russia and Austria recognise the Habsburg Empire’s predominance in the western Balkans. In June, Austria reaches an agreement with King Milan I of Serbia, whereby Austria promises to support an eventual Serbian expansion in the south, while Serbia agrees to exclude any agreement with other powers without Austria’s prior approval.
1883 Austria Political Context
In October, the Austrian Emperor Franz Josef concludes a secret alliance with the Hohenzollern King of Romania, Carol I, against Russia.
1896 Austria Political Context
Russia recognises Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, a former Austrian officer, as the new Prince of Bulgaria.
1903 Austria Political Context
The young King Alexander of Serbia is brutally murdered in an officers’ conspiracy in June. The replacement of the pro-Austrian Obrenović Dynasty by the pro-Russian House of Karađorđević under Peter I, changes the balance of power in the Balkans.
1908 Austria Political Context
The Austrian Government proclaims the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the evacuation of Austrian troops from the Sanjak on 6 October. The Austrian annexation then escalates into a major international crisis, which sees Serbia’s future hope to establish a Yugoslav empire shattered.
1914 Austria Political Context
On 28 June the heir-apparent Archduke Francis Ferdinand is shot in Sarajevo by a Bosnian youth of Serb origin.
1914 Austria Political Context
Austria declares war on Serbia in July: she is supported by Russia, France and Britain. Turkey and Bulgaria enter the war on the side of the German–Austrian Alliance.
1916 Austria Political Context
Death of Emperor Francis Joseph and accession of Emperor Charles I to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
1916 Austria Political Context
Romania declares war on the Central Powers: Germany, Austria and Bulgaria.
1918 Austria Political Context
Armistice between Austro-Hungary and the Entente Powers (France, Russia and the United Kingdom).
1918 Austria Political Context
Emperor Charles I renounces his participation to the government of Germany-Austria (Deutsch Österreich). The Austrian republic is founded in Vienna.
1918 Austria Political Context
The Peace (or Treaty) of Bucharest between Romania and Austria.
1919 Austria Political Context
Austria signs the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye with the Entente Powers.
1920 Austria Political Context
The population of Carinthia in southernmost Austria votes in favour of remaining within Austria.