In 19th-century Europe, women fought hard to gain the right to receive an education, to work and to vote. Women’s right to use public spaces triggered impassioned debate in Europe and in the Arab and Ottoman world, particularly in Egypt, where reformers such as Rifa‘a Rafi’ al-Tahtawi (1801–73) and Qasim Amin (1865–1908) advocated education for women as a means to advance Arab-Islamic society. The first schools for Muslim girls were established in Egypt, Tunisia and Lebanon. At the dawn of the 20th century, women began to emerge and occupy pioneering positions in teaching, the labour force and protest movements against colonial powers.
Trips to Morocco. Oujda via Lalla Marnia. Hôtel Figari […] car service every day […] links to the Tlemcen stagecoach and trains to Western Algeria.

Trips to the Oujda olive groves, the battleground of the Battle of Isly […] Horses and mules for day trips and walks.


National Library of France , Paris, France

Alexandre Lunois

Western travellers in the Arab and Ottoman world often sought out scenes of daily life involving women. The way Europeans imagined the position of women in Arab and Ottoman society, deduced not least from the way they dressed, was fed by often fanciful, romanticised and inaccurate accounts from travellers or the photographs they brought back.

See Database entry for this item

In this Exhibition
About the Exhibition