Pedagogy and knowledge
“Stand for the teacher and honour his rank ...
... for a teacher is almost as a prophet”
Ahmad Shawqi
In the 19th century, pedagogy advanced significantly in Europe as a result of the democratisation of certain subjects such as geography and the visual arts and the multiplication of resources supporting education (for example, cheaper schoolbooks, wall maps, equipment for experiments). The training received by teachers became increasingly more suited to their future teaching tasks in specialist teacher training establishments, such as the French écoles normales. Different pedagogic methods found success; one example was Montessori teaching, introduced in Italy in the 1900s, which is based on sensory awareness.
Primary students at a village school in central Italy, which followed the teaching methods introduced by Maria Montessori


Archivio Tela Umbra, Città di Castello, Italy

The teaching methods of Maria Montessori, a doctor, revolutionised education. This early photograph, taken in Italy, shows the principles of this method, in which each child advances at his or her own pace through the medium of sensory discovery.

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